Gershon Richard Kwasi Norgbey – the Celebrated Educationist

Gershon Richard Kwasi Norgbey, the celebrated educationist was born at Ziavi Dzogbe in the then German Togoland on the 15th of July, 1917. During the 1960s and 1970s, he championed the cause of education in the Volta Region and in Ghana as a whole. This to a very large extent resulted in a boom of educational development in the Volta Region during those early years after Ghana’s independence.

The sixth of ten (10) children born to Togbe Norgbey Nani of the royal clan of Tsadaviefe, Ziavi and Sarah Abra Anku of Anaviefe also in Ziavi, he was named Kwasi for being born on a Sunday. He was christened and baptised Gershon to follow the tradition of Hebro-Germanic names his father gave the older boys; Gotthold and Erasmus. Gershon himself added Richard when he had Eucharistic Confirmation in the Evangelical Presbyterian Church in his youth. Though Gershon Norgbey kept his two European names, he departed from this tradition by giving all his children only indigenous EWE names . Gershon Norgbey spent his early childhood, like most children of his generation, with his parents in Ziavi.

His father Norgbey Nani was a well travelled man and had farms in the Ahamansu forest regions of the Trans-Volta Togoland, a part of which is now the Volta Region of Ghana. He was an enlightened man and though he did not have formal education, he spoke some little German and played the accordion with which he entertained his family and friends in the evening after farm work.

His mother Anku-Bra, as she was popularly known in Ziavi, was a tall beautiful woman with a lot of vim and vigour. She was the only wife of Norgbey Nani and all his ten children were born by her. She helped her husband on his farms but her main preoccupation was to take care of the house and children. Five of the children who survived to adulthood were male: Gotthold, Erasmus, Gershon Richard, Emmanuel Krakani and Philemon Atta-Kuma. All these men were highly talented and carved niches for themselves quite early in life. Gotthold was a traditionalist and a musician composer. Erasmus was a community developer, tailor and award winning farmer. Gershon Richard was a distinguished educator. Krakani was a powerful preacher, healer, farmer and carpenter. Philemon Atta-Kuma had a remarkable career as a Health Superintendent and fathered many. Tasii (Aunt) Akua or Reuben-nor was the eldest of all Mama Anku-Bra’s children. Amelia also known as Yao-nor was a bright, intelligent and active woman; she was an affluent trader. She was a cementing element in a family of energetic and strong willed men. Victoria was cool and exuded love and peace.

Mama Anku-bra’s compound was usually filled in the evening with immediate and extended family, for her cooking pots always held more than enough for her husband and children. Even after the children got married and left her care, she still cooked and shared the food with her grandchildren. The tradition of all the male in this family eating from the same bowl was so entrenched that a clich developed around it: -No one invites you to your own meal-. In those days, there were no schools in Ziavi and because Gershon’s father wanted him to go to school, he had to send him away to Ho to live with members of extended family and friends. There are no records as to when he started school but Gershon Norgbey did not start school early. He was however very bright and had to skip some classes to find academic work challenging and interesting enough. He spent only four years instead of six in the primary school. Now young Gershon did not have everything when he went to school. He told a story of how he was given an old pair of German khaki shorts by his father. The shorts obviously were too big for him and were designed to be worn with braces. He did not have braces and neither could he afford a belt so he cut a piece of twine in the forest and with it he fastened his pair of big khaki shorts in place. Before long it became fashion and all the boys in the school were wearing pieces of dried forest twines for belts. He exhibited strong leadership qualities even from this tender age. Gershon Norgbey completed Senior School in Ho in the early to mid 1930s.

Having completed Senior School, GRK, as he was popularly known in educational circles, was recruited to teach in the colonial school system as a pupil teacher. He immediately found his calling as an educator. He took the Teacher Training College examinations and entered the Presbyterian Training College, Akropong, where he completed the Certificate of Teacher Training (Certificate -B-) and later in 1957, the Certificate -A- training. He talked about this institution very fondly for years; about the proverbial Presbyterian discipline, which he fully imbibed and exhibited for all the years he lived.

Gershon Richard Norgbey returned from Akropong to continue his teaching career as a fully trained teacher in 1957. Through his career, he taught in many different towns and villages including Abutia, Akuse, Krobo Odumase, Avenui, Takla and had several tours of duty in his hometown Ziavi Dzogbe.

In the early sixties, when Kwame Nkrumah started a fee-free compulsory education system in Ghana, all local authorities were instructed to open new schools, hire teachers, and expand educational opportunities at the local level. The position of Education Secretary was therefore created in the Ho District . Senior Head Teachers were invited to compete, through examination, for the post with a mandate to open new schools in the district, hire and train teachers, place and pay staff, create and administer a system of Local Authority (LA) schools in the district. Gershon Richard Norgbey succeeded in a fierce competition for the position and became the first and the only Education Secretary for Local Authority Schools in the Ho District.

Gershon Richard Norgbey or Master Efu , as he was called in Ziavi, became a pivotal figure in the expansion of educational opportunities in the central Volta Region in the 1960s. In his official short chassis Land Rover station wagon, which was painted light brown as if to hide the dust it would pick up on the unpaved roads and tracks, he criss-crossed a virtually unopened region with a single purpose – developing education. He opened many schools in the Ho District, hired both trained and pupil teachers and ensured proper administration of these local authority schools. He also managed a system of Supply Teachers who were mostly secondary or sixth form students on holidays. These supply teachers were posted for a few days to weeks to replace substantive teachers in Primary and Middle Schools, who might be on sick leave or on permitted absence for some other reasons. With his qualification, experience, personality and drive, he could have successfully vied for ministerial positions which existed for hard working and competent Ghanaians and even sometimes for the veranda-boys in those times. At the worst, he could have jostled for the position of an executive court clown sitting aimlessly in court trying to catch the attention of TV cameramen anytime the cameras rolled by if he were a fly catcher. He chose instead to work in education where he was most effective and did not discriminate the rural from the urban.

He spoke of times when he had to abandon his Station Wagon and walked several kilometres of foot tracks to either talk to chiefs to release land for school projects or to inspect schools being built. His appearance or mention inspired hope and order among teachers, parents and pupils alike. His name assumed legendary proportions in the central districts of the Volta Region and beyond. Though the main thrust of his duties was on developing elementary or basic education, his contribution to secondary education was also immense. As Education Secretary, he served on the Boards of Governors of Mawuli School, Ho; OLA Secondary School, Ho; Amedzofe Teacher Training College and the now defunct Ho Teacher Training College. The Kpedze and Awudome Secondary Schools were second cycle schools Mr Norgbey helped in establishing in addition to the numerous Primary and Middle schools he opened.

While already seen as the role model in the Ziavi community and as an educator, it was during this period in his life that he exerted the most influence and assisted in very significant ways in promoting the importance of education in Ziavi. He hired innumerable and capable middle school leavers as pupil teachers and encouraged them to train as professional teachers. Together with his elder brother Erasmus Norgbey, they knocked at the doors of parents of bright pupils who had passed the common entrance and teacher training college examinations, and convinced them to send their children to secondary schools and colleges; sometimes under extremely difficult circumstances. The educational revolution in Ziavi was born. There are very few educated individuals in Ziavi who grew up in the 1950′s through the 1970′s whose lives were not touched in one way or the other by Gershon Norgbey’s work.

Gershon Norgbey did not only try to help others educate their children. He taught by example. With the help of his wives, he educated his own children to the extent he was capable. Today, of his thirteen (13) children (one who unfortunately passed on), at least seven (7) have University degrees with two holding PhD’s. The others have college diplomas sometimes to the highest level. Four are teachers of assistant director’s rank. There is an environmental scientist, a consultant obstetrician and gynaecologist, a pharmacist, a financial economist, a police chief inspector, a cooperative marketer, an educational technologist, and two have returned to Universities to pursue advanced degrees both in Ghana and abroad.

Eight (8) of his grandchildren by the year 2008 have acquired degrees in various disciplines and are pursuing careers in varied fields; seven (7) others are in universities in Ghana and abroad working towards degrees in the arts, sciences and business and these numbers keep growing from year to year. This is a true evidence of the lasting legacy of his educational influence.

There is no gainsaying the educational achievement of GR’s children. Many people might not immediately reckon the cost of educating this large family. It was enormous. The incidence of the financial cost of this whole praiseworthy educational endeavour however fell in most part on the mothers of these children, especially those who could not enter secondary school before his demise. Five of GR’s children were still in the first cycle (basic) schools when he died. The psychological drive for attaining educational heights which flowed down from him to his family was however not in short supply, even after his death and this spurred his children on.

Gershon Richard also personally mentored a number of individuals from the Ziavi community and beyond; with some rising to international acclaim. One such person was his nephew, the late civil engineering guru and academic, Professor Jonas Kwaku Dake.

GR Norgbey married Madam Christine Kwampa quite early in life and she bore him a number of children, four of whom survived to adulthood. In 1945, when on duty tour at Takla, GR met Madam Eugenia Mana from the Adzoe/Quarcoo family and married her. Six of the children he had with her grew to adulthood. While on duty in the 1950′s in Avenui in the Awudome Traditional Area, GR met Madam Adolphine Adae and started another family which has produced three generations of policewomen. In 1961 while on inspection of some schools in the Abutia area, he met an Anlo lady from Atiavi in the Keta District called Mary Wemasenu who was teaching in one of the Abutia villages called Keseflui. Mary became his youngest wife and bore him two sons. Truly the two youngest of GR’s children were born in 1968 – Eric Agbemafa and Margaret Apefa.

Many people did not understand why GR Norgbey decided to have many wives and also that many children. It was not quite unusual for a learned man of his stature to have more than one wife in Ghana even today. Others thought it was prestigious for him to do so considering his enormous resource mobilisation capabilities. Apart from being a good teacher, he was also a good farmer. It was said jokingly that protgs who clamoured to work on his farm often got lost within the boundaries of his vast farms and man hours were rather spent to look for them.

Some pundits said that having a large family was engrained in GR’s psyche right from childhood and was not a product of recklessness. He was born into a large family which reaped more benefits of its large size than the disadvantages of it. Times though have since changed. The average number of offspring per GR’s children, as at the end of 2008, stood at a modest 2.77.

On a serious note, GRK’s polygamous lifestyle affected his relationship with the Evangelical Presbyterian Church in Ziavi. GR Norgbey was an eloquent lay preacher whose sermons were directed more at tackling social ills which plagued the Ziavi community and the politics of division which crept into the local church in those days. Delivering his fiery sermons, he stepped on toes, sometimes of bigwigs in the church. A group in the leadership of the local church conspired to keep him quiet by alluding to his multiple marriages and drew more venom from him. Although they did not attempt to excommunicate him, they tried to debar him from his pastime – mounting the pulpit to preach. GRK was a staunch believer in fairness, discipline of the mind, soul and body, and of freedom of expression and of association. He was dynamic; he was passionate about exploring opportunities and breaking new grounds. What he could not accept on any account was condoning hypocrisy and lies. He therefore moved to the Methodist Church which at that time put a lot of premium on his services as a teacher with remarkable qualities, and was more liberal with new members’ marital practices. Mr G R Norgbey therefore served his classroom teaching and head teacher years mostly in the Methodist Schools of Akuse, Avenui and Krobo Odumase.

Despite these limitations in his relationship with the church at home, he continued to be a role model, an opinion leader and a force majeure in the development efforts in his home town Ziavi – an effort to which the Evangelical Presbyterian Church was and continue to be a major partner. In December 2007, these efforts were given the due recognition and Mr Gershon Richard Kwasi Norgbey was posthumously honoured during the Centenary Celebrations of the Establishment of the Evangelical Presbyterian Church in Ziavi.

Gershon Richard Norgbey was very much involved in community development activities in the Ziavi Township. His elder brother Erasmus Norgbey was the Chairman of the Ziavi Town Development Committee (a committee of which Gershon Norgbey was also a member) when the Golden Jubilee of the Ziavi EP Church was celebrated. Rare for a Ghanaian rural setting and the highly networked streets seen in Ziavi today, were constructed during those celebrations in or about the year 1957. After his brother’s death in 1968, Gershon Richard Norgbey assumed an even more prominent role as educator extra-ordinaire, counsellor and community developer.

Gershon Richard lived a very rich social life. He danced to the Ziavi Yingor (the traditional popular band in the borborbor genre) music with zest and also did the classical dances very beautifully. His presence at traditional festivals, christening ceremonies, wedding and funeral celebrations was greeted with rippling excitement. With all his achievements, he was very approachable. He had a circle of friends but a discourse of his social life will not be complete without the mention of two of his cousins and very great friends: Mr Alexander Asimadu (Uncle Sande) and Mr Francis Debrah (Uncle Prempeh). These were fine gentlemen of their time who also worked in education.

The Norgbey family is a huge family numerically. It is rare for members of this family to drop the Norgbey for another surname. It is a uniquely established name in the Volta Region and beyond. It took the able leadership of GR Norgbey to pool the energies of this family together and create a brand of surname that is carried with pride in Ghana and overseas. Little variations in spelling may occur – Norgbe, Noagbe – you are sure dealing with the same name.

Adza(father)- NYE, the single identifiable ancestor of the Awatrofe-NYE/Norgbey clan was also the royal landlord of Ziavi Dzogbe. It is a blessing to be born into a family endowed with resources and titles. With this endowment comes a big responsibility of maintaining the size and quality of the resources therein. With increasing population came pressure on natural resources and with it also came intruders, encroachers and usurpers. The blurring of strict family lines through intermarriages and squatting in Ziavi made it very difficult for land owners to defend their property. Awatrofe-Nye/Norgbey lands were no exception. Pieces of Awatrofe-Nye land were stolen with impunity and with them royal and functional titles. It took the instrumental intervention and leadership of GR Norgbey to retrieve some of this ancestral heritage. In these endeavours he invested huge amounts of money and time. His formula for success in these matters however was teamwork. -You must be ready to serve if you want to lead’, he often quipped. To get back stolen lands and titles, he sometimes had to go to court. His legal team comprised of Togbe Albert Norgbey and Togbe Kodzo Akorli Norgbey all of blessed memory. His most important ally however, was the truth. Descendants of Asiam of Anaviefe Ziavi and Ngornee of Gboxome Ziavi remained his witnesses and always attested that only three ancestors owned land in Ziavi, Awatrofe-NYE and his two cousins Asiam and Ngornee. GRK’s landmark dawn family meetings with other family elders ensured that information was updated in all households in the family on regular bases and that only verified and certified information was disseminated.

In earlier years, Gershon and his brother Erasmus Norgbey, who were actively involved in district politics, were also staunch members of Kwame Nkrumah’s Convention People’s Party (CPP). GRK and Erasmus were among the vanguards who fought for the unification of the Trans-Volta Togoland with the Gold Coast and supported the push for an early independence for Ghana.

It was told that on 5th March 1957, the eve of Independence of Ghana, members of the Freedom Party or -Ablode- (the fashion opposed to the unification) started pelting the Norgbey family house with stones, and were threatening to attack GRK, his brother Erasmus and other CPP activists holed up in the house. There were no telephone connections to Ziavi then and mobile phone technology was yet to be developed. In a brilliant security move, a note was sent to the police chief in Ho some four kilometres away through a courier who left the house carrying a bucket – ostensibly to the river (Atakpla) for water. In 20 minutes the town was filled with riot police and the siege ended abruptly as it started.

Fifty years on, all the opponents to the CPP and their children and many children and grandchildren of Gershon, Erasmus and other staunch CPP members find themselves in the National Democratic Congress (NDC), all united against the National Patriotic Party (NPP) which is in the minority in this town. The CPP is almost non-existent here. Selasi Gakplanya Norgbey, a bastion of the revived CPP in the Ho Central Constituency, passed on a few years ago and may his soul rest in perfect peace. The political landscape has changed completely. The Norgbey house is still a political hotbed but on the side of the NDC which has virtually usurped the fortunes of the CPP. The Norgbey family however lives up to its democratic ideals -one of which is freedom of association. There are a few NPP members amongst its fold today.

Following the overthrow of Dr. Kwame Nkrumah’s CPP in February 1966 and the resulting changes in local government administration, the local educational authorities were abolished. Gershon Norgbey returned home, and headed the Ziavi L A Middle School once again and for the last time. In 1969 he became a Principal Teacher and was posted to Damongo in the Northern Region as an Inspector of Schools. He impacted tremendously on the educational developments in that part of the country.

His posting to the Northern Region in 1969 coincided with the inception of political activity in the country after a three year ban by the then ruling National Liberation Council. As a political strategist, GR’s posting to the North deprived him of the opportunity to contribute effectively at home to the efforts of the National Alliance of Liberals (NAL) which was a reorganisation of members of the proscribed CPP, and was headed by Mr. Agbeli Gbedemah. Was GR Norgbey’s posting masterminded by those in power then? Did he ask to be posted up north so he could concentrate on his career as an educator? These were some of the questions asked then. The centre-right Progress Party eventually won the majority in parliament and formed the government of the second republic. The Progress Party rule however did not last long and ended with the coup d’etat of January 13, 1972.

GR’s ability to achieve results was phenomenal and this had sent the name of Norgbey and Ziavi well beyond the boundaries of the Volta Region in the early post independence years. In 1972, he returned to the Ho District Education Office and served in various capacities. He was made the officer in charge of Logistics and Textbooks, and later the district head of the Schools Inspectorate Division. He retired in 1974 after working in the District Education Office for a few years while continuing his involvement in the development activities of the Ziavi Township. In August 1977, Gershon Norgbey died at his home in Ziavi after a short illness.

At the celebration of his funeral in September 1977, all the streets which he helped to carve out 20 years earlier, were filled with mourners from all corners of the country. The funeral service was led by the Parish Priest in charge of the Methodist Church of Ghana at Ho. As representatives of schools and colleges, government, professional, social and political organisations, chiefs and individuals in their own rights filed to pay their last respect, a lone shrill voice exclaimed, -a prophet is seldom accepted in his own home!-

After the burial of GR Norgbey, the Methodist Church was established in Ziavi in the October of 1977. In appreciation of his good pedagogical works in the Methodist Educational Unit and to engender the rapid growth of the church in Ziavi, a school was established in his name in 1978: the GR Norgbey Methodist Experimental Primary School. Notwithstanding all difficulties associated with starting a school, this school was so successful that six years after its establishment, all the class six pupils who wrote the common entrance examinations were successful; a feat achieved only by elite preparatory schools in the metropolis of Accra, Tema and Kumasi.

Gershon Richard Kwasi Norgbey is remembered fondly today for his enormous contributions to the development of education in the Volta Region of Ghana, and also as an astute farmer who cultivated the first plantation size oil palm farm in Ziavi. He was a brilliant musician with a number of his light tunes still sweetly remembered today. He also contributed, in no mean measure, to developing and restructuring the chieftaincy institution in Ziavi.

The Author Mighty Agbenuke Kwaku Norgbey, (MSc Economics (Finance & Banking), Kishinev; MSc PAFI, York UK), is the 11th child of GR Norgbey.

Acknowledgements I pay solemn tributes to Uncles Krakani and Philemon Atta-Kuma Norgbey, for the insightful memories about G R Norgbey, which they shared in their lifetime with the author.

I acknowledge the contribution of Dr Segbedzi W Norgbey and Dr Gameli K Norgbe for providing the sketch text which was developed into this piece.

Thanks to Eric Agbemafa Norgbey who proofread the article and suggested necessary revisions to make this historical account an interesting reading.

Explanatory Notes

The Ho District 1The Ho District then was a very expansive area covering the Awudome, Sokode, Abutia, Adaklu, Ho, Avatime, Kpedze, Ave, Agotime, Etordome, Anfoeta, Saviefe, Ziavi, Taviefe, Klefe, Matse, Agogoe, Dzolo, Tanyigbe, Nyive, Akrofu, Hlefi, Hodzo and other enclaves. Each of these enclaves contained more than two towns or villages with some having as many as 36 towns and villages. A few of these traditional areas had towns which were already urban in structure and could have quite a number of schools eg Ho, Tsito, Kpedze, Vane, Amedzofe and Kpetoe. The substantial part of the district was however underdeveloped and rural, and needed a lot of educational development.

Indigenous Ewe Names 2GRK christened his children Semadzi, Elesi, Semabia, Segbedzi, Sefakor, Amewodzina, Enyonam, Mawutor, Gameli, Mawusi, Agbetor, Agbenuke, Agbemafa, and Apefa. His brother Erasmus also gave his children names like Selete, Senagbe, Semenyo, Selasi, Babanaeto, Apenorvi and Eli among others.

In Ewe traditional religion, God – Mawu, Nature/Fate – Se, and Life – Agbe are considered Supreme and are used interchangeably. Semabia – I will ask God/Nature/my Fate Segbedzi – God’s bidding/Nature’s bidding/Life’s bidding Senagbe – God gives life/nature gives life/ Life gives life.

For example, the three meanings of Senagbe confirm the ability of the many concepts in Ewe traditional wisdom to converge religious doctrine (biblical teaching) and evolutionary science (Darwinism). God is life – God the Creator; Nature gives life- creation of life from matter, evolution by natural selection. Life gives life – you can only give what you are/have.

Master Efu 3 -Efu- is an Ewe word which means Bone in English. Not many could tell the origin of this appellation. One school of thought had it that GR Norgbey was so good academically that he was nicknamed -Bone- or -Efu- to show how intelligent he was.

Some other people associated the name with GR’s tall lanky physique and called him -Bone- or -Efu- for not having a lot of flesh.

The Volta Region of Ghana

Location: The easternmost Region of Ghana, bordered by the Eastern Region to the west, the Greater Accra Region to the southwest, the Gulf of Guinea to the south, the Northern Region to the north and the Republic of Togo to the east.

The People: The people of the Volta Region are predominantly Ewe. The Ewe (Fon) language is also spoken in the Republic of Togo and the west of Republic of Benin. The Volta Region is also home to the Guan clans of Avatime, Akpafu, Buem, Bowiri, Nkonya, Logba, Tafi, Nyangbo, Likpe and Santrokofi. Some Akan and Dangbe people are also found in this region.

Major Towns: Ho, Keta, Anloga, Aflao, Denu, Kpando, Hohoe, Jasikan

Tourist Attractions: The Wli / Agumatsa Waterfall – the highest waterfall in West Africa. Location: Hohoe District

Afadjato Mountains – Highest Mountain Peak in Ghana. Location: Liati, Hohoe District

Tafi Monkey Sanctuary – rare exhibition of human/wildlife cohabitation. Location: Tafi Atome, Hohoe District

Kente Village – every household has a loom on which the kente fabric (traditional Ewe/Ashanti textile) is woven. Location: Agotime Kpetoe, Adaklu Anyigbe District

Fort Prezenstein – Keta, Keta Municipality

Kalakpa Resource Reserve – Abutia Mountains. Location: Abutia, Ho Municipality

The Roman Catholic Church Grotto – Awe-inspiring religious scenery – Location: Kpando Agbenorxoe, Kpando District

Fresh Tilapia Joints: Sogakope, South Tongu District

Water Sports: Volta River, Sogakope, South Tongu District

Home Roasted Coffee (Ziavi tutui): Ziavi, Ho Municipality

Organic Bananas: Ziavi, Ho Municipality

Traditional Festivals Hogbetsotso – the great migration of the Ewe people. Venue: Anloga, Anlo State.

Yam Festival – Asogli Traditional Area, Venue: Ho

Awazorli – the migration of the Ewe people. The festival is celebrated by the Ziavi, Botoku, Mepe, Kpedze and Kpando Dzigbe Communities. Venue: Rotates among the Awazorli communities

Hotels: Chances Hotel, Ho Pensioners’ House, Ho

CONTINUITY This text will be revised periodically on receipt of additional information on GR Norgbey, his life and contribution to education in Ghana.

9843b08fa84d4b4f9a47215bf6216db6

Carp Bait Recipes And Homemade Boilies And Paste For Beating Ready Made Baits!

Carp Bait Recipes And Homemade Boilies And Paste For Beating Ready Made Baits!

You can break free from the confusion and costs of ready made baits, instant attractor pineapple and butyric acid baits etc, and food baits right now! There has never been a better time to take control and make very uniquely potent secret homemade baits to beat even the best ready made food baits! Improve your big fish catches for life; read on!

If you think about carp baits it is very likely that your mind brings up images of boilies, or perhaps other baits such as hemp, or tiger nuts, or pellets, hempseed, or even maggots for example. But in all likelihood you will probably have been picturing boilies, and perhaps your favourite brand or flavours relating to these. One of the most powerful things you can do to significantly improve your big carp catches is to erase these kinds of associations. Bear with me on this as it leads you to where you need to be in being an exceptional homemade bait maker of baits that beat any popular readymade food bait!

The reason for this is that if your starting point in bait is focused upon brand, or flavours or traditional old school paradigms of bait design then you are definitely not actually thinking like a fish, but like an angler. Free your mind to think fresh thoughts and think out of the box, and provide your fish with completely new bait experiences. Being different is the biggest edge in carp fishing and this is because carp constantly dynamically adapt towards any new threat and popular readymade baits are a threat because they have so many commonly used features, characteristics, substances, formats and applications. But think like a fish and your results will improve because your focus in exactly the place it needs to be!

It may seem odd, but the fishing tackle and bait industry is about profit margin and the bottom line and this means aiming to get maximum sales from the massive majority to hit the biggest numbers! This means that they inevitably are drawn towards encouraging and exploiting a form of psychological conditioning which is very apparent in sports such as carp fishing and football. Check this out and you will find that anglers tend to think you are odd if you do not use any branded fishing gear or the most popular baits on their water! Yet one of the most proven ways to catch some of the least caught fish is to give them something different to what they are familiar with!

This actually means that in many cases you might think you are using the best bait, but it is simply that everyone else is using it that makes it appear good. For instance if everyone used Marmite bread paste instead of Mainline Cell on every water it is being used on, then results might make very many anglers think that Marmite paste was the best bait in the world because of so many fish being caught on it! I am not joking when I suggest that if you made a paste using very ripe liquidised papaya, Marmite, probiotic yeast and the most yeasty smelling bread you can find, that you will do very well indeed against Mainline Cell! But that is not my main point, and I wish to really open your mind to vaster possibilities for improvement of your catches!

Carp behave in relation to stimuli, and give them new and different stimuli and they have to really focus on the new and different in order to determine if it is an opportunity, or a threat. Therefore the easiest and most simple way to get around conditioned carp caution and get more bites is to make it as difficult as possible for carp to avoid capture by thinking differently, and being different in your resulting actions (your different thinking with result in different but highly beneficial actions in your entire fishing process!)

If you are different then anglers tend to be suspicious of you; they most often perceive you as a threat because you are not like them. But how many times does a new angler on a so-called hard water come along and instantly have the kind of catches that the regular anglers simply do not experience? It is about differences and refined differences of many kinds. You might say that an exceptional angler is no different to an average angler, except for the fact that all the slight differences in thinking and awareness, the slight refinements in the whole process all add up and make all the difference!

Many carp anglers follow fashions not simply to use the latest gear to look good, or use a popular bait because they really do not understand how to think like a fish instead of a company hypnotized sheep, in effect. Many anglers buy what they do to fit in with the crowd, and companies really love this kind of fear of not fitting in with the herd or tribe, as in Tribal gear or clothing or whatever.

I have got to say how powerful the media really is in conditioning anglers. For example I actually had one guy on the bank tell me that Mainline Cell was the best bait in the world, yet he had not caught on it for 4 days. Yet within twenty minutes of changing over to a couple of homemade baits I gave him, he caught two carp (including a personal best forty.) These fish were hooked right over all the bait he had been feeding his swim with (and the fish were in the swim all the time,) but the lake had been bombarded with Cell by the majority of anglers that fished there. The homemade baits I gave him were not instant highly flavoured baits nor traditional food baits, but something very different!

The average carp angler tends to be of a younger age and is actually more likely to feel safer copying the herd to fit in, and this is a proven psychological behaviour expressed by human males mostly below the age of 40 plus; before a stronger sense of personal individual personal power and personal identity and awareness of unique individuality has been gained.

Generally speaking this means that football fans or carp fisherman will tend to belong or have a kind of brand loyalty towards one particular club or brand so most often a football fan will not be a fan of two clubs at the same time, and for instance a carp angler may well be a fan of Mainline or Korda, or of Fox Tackle or Nash Baits etc.

Think about it; is your focus on particular brands? My point is that carp have not interest in whether you wear Diem clothing, or use Shimano reels or use Mainline Cell. Apart from fish location and correct rig dynamics and bait presentation for a particular fishing situation, two of the most important factors in your success are these:

Bait which stimulates feeding behaviours of one form or another which actually gets your hook into the mouth of a fish (despite wariness and caution.)

Use of an exceptional hook with correct length, bend, angles and ratios to maximise hook point access and penetration, with a hook point which instantly penetrates with absolute minimum resistance to at least 4 millimeters depth, with no pressure from a lead at all. To achieve such a hook point finesse involves lengthy manual sharpening to take the hook point to a thickness far thinner than any hook on the market. (If you want to see a picture of such a hook as this which is the ideal hook point then contact me!)

The chances are that if you are focused upon brands and have a fixation with brand loyalty, then you feel a fear of change, even guilt at changing brands. Maybe you might not feel any guilt in connection with brands, but more a confusion about which to use. Going back to thinking like a fish it takes all focus off such irrelevant matters when you focus upon why and how fish actually feed upon bait.

When your focus is on this you can very easily catch big fish after big fish without using any expensive brands of tackle at all, and if you want proof of this I will be very happy to show you pictures of my 21 (to date,) UK forties, caught on minor brand (or totally unbranded) fishing gear. These fish were invariably caught by focusing on the how and why carp actually manifest feeding behaviours in the presence of totally unique baits.

My homemade baits are not food baits in the traditional sense of high nutritional or balanced nutritional stimulation, but they are certainly not based around concentrated flavour attraction and low bioactivity carbohydrate boilie base mixes.

There are other paradigms of bait that you can exploit, which beat readymade food baits, and that is a proven fact. If you want proof, well I have been doing this for years.

If you want to immediately become limited by your own focus upon searching for recipes then please realise that once you get a hit of fish on your water those fish will not simply keep consuming it as if it was not a threat. Few big carp are not under constant pressure today, and to have an incredible arsenal of 100 percent guaranteed successful options of variations to your successful baits is really a gigantic edge, and that is something I can provide and been increasing my capacity to provide for the past 6 years, especially as this has been my full time job!

Prices for raw material have been zooming up in recent years and this includes the price of eggs and carbohydrate ingredients traditionally used as cheap bait binders. But most of all, the prices of high protein additives and ingredients has shot up. From the perspective of an average carp angler addicted to using fish meal type ready made food baits, this probably means nothing, but I can tell you now that stocks of one of the mainstays of fish meal baits will not be available soon due to collapsing fish stocks and rising prices. L030 soluble fish protein from Sopropeche is a massive part of the success of so many ready made fish meal baits, but other fish products are becoming more and scarcer. For instance tuna meal used to be easily available. Check out the situation now!

My point is that for those anglers addicted to fish meal baits please bear in mind that with the gigantic demand now from India, China and other countries for raw materials, fish are on the point of becoming not merely an unsustainable food source, but not a viable option at all in regards to fishing baits in the future. Even the management of fish stocks around the relatively rich UK sea fish stocks has led to 50 percent of all fish caught by trawlers being dumped (dead,) back into the sea.

I have been brainwashed in the past into exploiting fish meals as it was the fashion, but in fact I have never caught more fish than average using these, compared to exploiting other substances, and this is due to a number of significant reasons.

The fact is that far too many anglers have been sucked into a form of hypnosis where thinking beyond old paradigms about baits generates a degree of fear and suspicion. What if I suggested that you can catch just as many big carp by not using food baits, and not using highly over flavoured attractor baits? (This is what I have been doing for years.) Of course if you are skeptical of this just remember how successful baits like rig foam, fake corn, hemp and maggots are!

In thinking out of the box of traditional bait paradigms you can forge your own unique directions and paths in creating very unusual new homemade baits, and new exciting applications of these, and exploit these to catch far more than the average angler using ready made food baits!

In my case I realised years ago that carp are literally dependant upon how their sensory systems and internal processes etc have evolved in direct response to the available nutrient sources which have been most energy efficient to exploit along the time line of carp evolution which obviously have resulted in maximum chances of carp survival and ongoing reproduction right down to today.

Thinking like a fish using this bigger picture plus many other aspects really has a massive impact upon the roads to travel along and exploit in your bait making. No longer are you going to be trapped in an L030, and green lipped mussel type traditional paradigm, but will immediately see other options which carp are exceptionally sensitive to! This is something very close to my heart because this kind of thinking, that we are individually evolved in response to food most available in our environment along our own unique genetic lineage is highly significant to our health. We all as individuals have unique differences in our nutrient requirement levels, abilities to digest, or assimilate various substances within foods, and we individually differ in terms of our unique sensitivities to potent substances not associated at all with nutrients!

For example, some people are allergic to strawberries, and some people hate the smell or taste of fish. Some people can smell and taste the kinds of soil that a variety of grape has been grown in, from the compounds in the wine being tested. This is about thinking like a fish, and not about brands or media induced mass hypnosis and conditioning towards one brand or another.

I do not think about what name my bait has, or how many of my friends or high profile anglers have caught whatever number of fish on any particular brand of bait because my baits stimulate feeding because I focus on why and how this occurs in maximised and truly optimised ways within my unique homemade baits. Whatever readymade baits historically or currently being used on a water I fish are completely irrelevant! I hope you really get this point and why this point is so important to make because I know so many anglers are really fixated by what brand of bait is being used by others on their water, when in fact it is simply not even something a thinking angler gives a single thought to because it truly is irrelevant when you have correct focus and are thinking like a fish and not an angler!

For instance I use unique homemade baits which exploit bioactive substance potency which reward fish internally. These substances, components, compounds etc may affect many or just one specific aspect of fish leading to fish taking the bait into their mouths. My baits for instance may boost health, vitality, immunity, or providing particular benefits not directly related to nutrition at all.

Some aspects of my baits for instance increase stamina in fish, or relieve muscle tension and relax fish making them more energy efficient and able to feed for longer with more intensity thus increasing chances of more bites. Other aspects of my baits or variations of my formulations and recipes improve heart, or vascular system, or liver performance. To do this can be extremely simple involving basing a bait on one particular substance, or building the bait around a type of stimulatory substance used in a very high level or maybe one that works in incredibly low level.

So for instance many substances I might choose from work best at a mere 1 gram, or 4 gram or 11 grams per kilogram of base mix. But I can assure you I’m not that accurate about weighing everything because I know from practiced experience that the major danger in baits in giving them something they have already been hooked on!

You can begin to see that maybe my baits work not as typical food baits but may be designed to have a number of a single primary internal or external effect or impacts. So instead of a food bait aiming to provide a balanced amino acid profile, or water soluble vitamins or certain forms of omega 3, my homemade baits may be created specifically towards effects and impacts for instance provided by substances that assist carp in balancing vital cell pressures internally, or acting as stimulants of gut villi growth (thus improving food assimilation of nutrients,) or as very significant growth enhancers. Some of my baits might operate specifically in terms of massive palatability impacts and internal cellular energy releasers for example.

My homemade baits might even actually provide beneficial gut flora, or stimulate the activity of these highly beneficially, or supply the actual primary food of gut flora. (I bet you would like to know what this is as it is very stimulating indeed!) Such things are not secrets but are simply waiting for you to discover if you open your mind and look for a bigger picture than the modern carp fishing industry in its modern context, and read further!

So go beyond prevalent popular perceptions of food baits, spod or stick mixes, fashions like the salt fad, flavours, and ingredients etc that are promoted via videos or magazines and put your mind where it is most powerful, inside that of a fish! Revealed in my unique readymade bait and homemade bait carp and catfish bait secrets ebooks is far more powerful information look up my unique website (Baitbigfish) and see my biography below for details of my ebooks deals right now!

By Tim Richardson.

Multiply your catches for life with these world-wide proven expert readymade and homemade bait secrets bibles: BIG CARP FLAVOURS FEEDING TRIGGERS AND CARP SENSES EXPLOITATION SECRETS! BIG CARP AND CATFISH BAIT SECRETS! And BIG CARP BAIT SECRETS! NOW VISIT: CARP And Catfish BAIT SECRETS at BAITBIGFISH.COMhttp://www.baitbigfish.com

9843b08fa84d4b4f9a47215bf6216db6

Effective Music Branding Strategies And Tips

Branding is instrumental in defining and determining the success of any business. This goes without saying in the music industry. People connect emotionally and mentally with music. Finding a way to promote branded music services and to develop music-based marketing strategies for a wide range of clients is the clear goal of all music branding agencies. However, it is the creativity and emotionality that will produce the most optimal results in regard to music branding.

Music boasts tremendous power over human beings. We turn to music when we need motivation, when we want to be happy, and when we are going through rough times, in addition to a plethora of other reasons. Because of the strong emotional connection that music harnesses, many reputable companies and organizations contact music branding agencies in order to identify a way to leverage the power of music when targeting consumers. In order to ensure that your musical selection will empower potential and present consumers, it is imperative that you know your audience in depth. If you release an irrelevant sound, then it can cause you to lose customers and cause detriment to your success.

When used in commercials, endorsements, and sponsorships, music can easily attract attention and interest; but you will want to ensure that you are garnering the respect of your target audience and not merely random consumers. Deploying surveys, entertaining suggestions, and encouraging customer feedback are all avenues to explore when you are trying to deduce how to most effectively connect with your audience. These factors combined with the expertise of a music branding agency should enable you to develop a sound that will resonate with your employees and your customers. It is important to note that there can be high costs associated with your vision depending upon the artist, song, and the popularity of both when you are deciding upon a relevant sound.

Your music selection should convey a message that accurately represents your brand. It should define your values, your goals, and how you choose to communicate. Yet, it should also reveal emotional points that evoke a deeper understanding and connection between your brand and your customers. Music branding can work quite effectively so long as it harmonizes with your other initiatives and seamlessly flows with your overall marketing strategies while simultaneously connecting with your audience on an internal level. If you can successfully accomplish these three elements, then not only will you spark a sense of pride and unity among your employees, but you will also establish your integrity to your consumers.

Music branding can be an effective tool when trying to build the strength of your brand as well as loyalty to your consumers. Understanding your audience is critical when it comes to determining a sound that will most accurately represent and reflect the ideals, values, and goals of your company. In taking the time to select a piece that will resonate with all of your brands supporters, you are helping yourself to attract lifelong customers that will faithfully believe in your products and your mission. For optimal music branding results, consider contacting a music branding agency to provide you with expert assistance.

9843b08fa84d4b4f9a47215bf6216db6

Relationship Between The Printing Press And Music

When thinking about the invention of the printing press an immediate response is to think about the impact that turning point in history had on literature. Often the musical significance of this incredible invention is overlooked.This article will outline the early history of the printing press. Almost as soon as the printing press was developed, type designs were introduced. Type designs were created and linked to printing in different countries.

Even today, it is possible to see the effects that the printing press has on modern living. With having written words it was possible to be expressive through writing. Printed word established the relationship between art and printing. Decorative printing was a step in developing art in printing. To understand the link between printing and music it is important to know the difference between literature printing and musical notation. One obvious difference is that music texts are for performance. Another significant difference is that music texts are deciphered twice: first, by the performer and then by the listener.

The printing of music creates a direct connection between the composer and the performer. It is essential that the printing of music is as accurate as possible as this will be the only communication between the creation and reproduction.

Before the printing press original manuscripts, or hand written copies, were used to perform from. The printing press changed the size of pieces from the original manuscripts. Reading off of a smaller score puts constrictions to the performance of the work.

Published music was invented before the invention of the printing press. Early published music was reproduced by engraving on plates. This process was time consuming and very difficult.

Despite the fact that the printing press was invented in the fifteenth century, the first copyright law was not in place until the early eighteenth century. The purpose of having a copyright varies throughout the world. When copyright was first established it was used as a noun, literally meaning having the right in the copy. Having the right copy refers to giving credit to the individual who created the original idea. The shift today is the use of copyright as a verb the right to copy.

The printing press put many constraints on music. One constraint was the interpretation of music was limited. As the performance text grew further away from the composers original manuscript, the musical interpretation grew further away as well. Also, as mentioned earlier, there was a size difference in the paper produced from the printing press and original manuscripts. This size different changes the way the performer visually reads a piece.

With music being reproduced by printing presses and publishing houses, the need for a music editor arose. There are many disadvantages to have an editor working with music scores. A large problem musicians face is working with scores that have been over edited. Another related problem is the fact that many editors have not done significant research before they add material to the score.

With the rise of publishers, numerous editions are created, printing the same material. It is possible to buy two different editions of a piece with a discrepancy in something even as basic as having the correct notes. Some editions are not as researched as others, creating interpretations that may not be close to the composers original intention.

HISTORY OF PRINTING PRESS

Printing previous to 1500 was referred to as the incunabula period. Incunabulum is derived from Latin which means cradle, therefore symbolizing the beginning of the art of printing. By the eighteenth century the term was applied to all books printed before 1500. In the nineteenth century, incunabulum meant any individual item that emanated from the printing presses of the fifteenth century.
Johann Gutenberg
Johann Gensfleisch zum Gutenberg began working with the invention of the printing press around 1440. He began working on this when he was a political exile at Strasbourg. Many people mistake Gutenbergs invention with the invention of published books. This belief is reinforced by the inevitable association of Gutenbergs name with the 42-line Bible. Gutenberg should receive credit for the invention of the method of producing punches and matrices to be used with a mold for metal types of identical height. Thereby it was possible to produce a type having a uniform rectangular body. The individual letters so cast could be placed by the compositor in proper juxtaposition to one another in free combination. They were interchangeable, hence the term movable metal types.

This printing press was large and very difficult to operate. The awkward machine made presswork toilsome; and it was incapable of printing a full sheet of paper at one pull. Despite this fact it still increased the number of literate people in the world.

Gutenberg quit working on the printing press for two main reasons. The first is that his source of funding was taken away. Gutenberg had a patron who in 1455 foreclosed on him and gave most of the presses and types to his soon to be son-in-law Schffer of Gernsheim. The second reason the Gutenberg gave up working on the printing press was due to physical reasons. Gutenberg became blind after 1460 and abandoned any further pursuit of his invention.

Gutenberg died in 1468 and his epitaph reads to the immortal memory of Johannes Gensfleisch, the inventor of the art of printing, who has deserved well of every nation and language. His invention influenced the rest of the world for many centuries after his death. After the early invention of the printing press it reached a state of technical efficiency not materially surpassed until well into the nineteenth century.

Consolidation Era

After the invention of the printing press, from around 1550 until 1800, the consolidation era was established. As mentioned earlier, no technical advancements were made to the printing press during this time. Neither were there any new inventions, regarding the printing press, made during this time. The consolidation era, as the name suggests, stabilized the printing industry.

During this time the working middle class people had the opportunity to learn how to read and write. Before this it was reserved as a privilege for the wealthy to be literate. Because more people were now reading it was necessary to provide information to people for them to read. The general publics desire for quick information and for regular entertainment brought into existence the periodical press.

The first public library was developed during the consolidation era. Before libraries existed with manuscripts but were for private use only, owned by various people like Julius Caesar.

Censorship of printed word was established in the consolidation era. It was the responsibility of the lay and the church to censor the publications. Printers and publishers did not always appreciate censorship and would use the smallest possible size, the largest possible types, and every other device which a century-old fight against censorship had taught them.

Nineteenth Century Printing

In the nineteenth century the technique of printing gradually changed. There was a hesitation from the public to advance further in the printing press in order to avoid mechanization. By the late nineteenth century, the concept of mechanization [began] to make an impact on letter-founding, type-composition, and bookbinding, and not until the late 1880s did the combined casting and composing machine become a commercial reality.
The nineteenth century brought about technical progress in the printing press. This was the century that began the slow process of turning printing from a trade into an industry.

The strict regulations for censorship had been lifted during this century. Censorship was now based on voluntary [agreements] of the parties concerned and not on compulsory measures of the authorities.
It was during this century that governments used the press for large scale, direct, and incessant appeals and orders to the masses. The Revolutionary and Napoleonic France governments were first to use press this way.
Type Design

After the death of Gutenberg in 1468, the printing press had spread throughout many different countries. By the middle of the sixteenth century every nation developed a certain type design. Type design throughout history has always had a deeper, more political meaning than it appears at first. When Roman and Italic types were invented they
represented the humanism in people. The type design of Germany, Russia, and Turkey represented the resistance to humanism. The importance of type design can be noted by the recent transition to the Latin alphabet by the Germans and Turks is a major step towards the unity of world civilization; just as the refusal of post-Lenin Russia to abandon the Cyrillic letter nay, its progressive imposition on the Soviet colonials is a significant omen of the deep cleavage between East and West.

ART IN PRINTING

After discussing type design it is possible to see the relationship between art and printing. With the beginning of printed books there was a high level of technical achievements but this was combined with great beauty of design, that the printing of music began. Visual effects of printed music are vital to the overall effect the music will have on the performer and audience. Engraving of music connected the visual aspect of music to the notating process. This process of engraving naturally led to a great increase in the use of pictorial title pages and decorated borders. Illustrations were sometimes used, even as far as to having comic pictures between staves and in the margins of the music.

Difference Between Printing and Music

There is a large difference between printing music and printing solely verbal text. A quote from Kings Four Hundred Years of Music Printing summarizes the difference between literature and musical notation:
the letters forming a word represent a concept to be conveyed by the eye to the brain, in music the note, whether accompanied by a text or not, is primarily an instruction to bring into action lungs or fingers, or both combined, in order to produce a sound at a certain pitch and of a certain duration.

The difficulty with musical notation is that the symbols need to be made as clearly and precise as possible.
There are two aspects of musical notation: horizontality and verticality. Horizontality refers to the horizontal aspects of music notation. One point in horizontality is the relationship between each note. This includes the intervallic relationship from note to note. Another aspect of horizontality is the changes in spacing between one note or group of notes and the next, as required by changes in time-values.

The vertical aspect of musical notation sets it completely apart from verbal text, as the concept of writing two words at the same time is not practical. The vertical part of musical notation is having the two or more notes in the same alignment on the stave. This vertical arrangement is important in vocal works as a precise vertical relationship has also to be established between the notes on the stave and the syllables of the underlying text.

If the printed musical score is altered in any way the horizontality and verticality could potential have a different meaning to the reader. This could in turn alter the performance and bring the work further away from the composers original idea.

Another main difference between music texts and literature is the fact that musical texts are performance texts. Musical texts presume a musical performance, with the result that music as manifest in print leads a dual life as text and performance. Understanding that in earlier times music reached people mainly by performances it is important to note that any history of the musical cultures of print must engage performative issues.

Deciphering music as a performative text adds certain angles that are not present in literature. It is important to note that performance and print both shape the way music conveys its meaning; yet while historians of music have long been cognizant of the former that performers interpret and mold the meaning of the texts they realize they have rarely theorized the implications of print in similar terms. Often performers will trust what is written on the page instead of looking for the true intention of the composer. The effect that printed music has on performance is so great that it [stands] alongside performance in the triangle if [forms] with composers and audiences.

Musical texts are deciphered twice which does not occur often in literature. Musical text meanings unfold twice as they are read both by musicians and then by audiences. In the first instance, the black signs cast across the pages of musical scores give musicians instructions for how to perform a given piece; the notes help musicians to produce a reading of a piece, public or private, whether with instruments, voice, or both. The only link that the audience has to the music is what the performer portrays and the only thing that the performer can give the audience is what he takes from the musical score.

Due to the fact that reading music produces an audible sound, it is understood that this type of reading is not transparent, like most literature texts. Interpretation of musical scores creates variant readings with each performance, impressing their individual marks upon the works they play. Because of this fact it is argued that musicians approximate texts. The appearance of the musical text is essential for a successful interpretation as it can [disrupt] the linear continuum between composer and audience in the same way that musical performances do. Print complicates and expands this middle ground by multiplying the material forms of texts and thereby multiplying their meanings.

It is possible to compare the performance of musical scores to reading a book to someone that is illiterate. The musicians mediate what for many listeners is an illegible text, pages of hieroglyphs that require special literacy: the score. Notation alone sets music apart from literature.

Like someone telling a story, the performance of a musical text becomes available to an audience of listeners who in turn read the music they hear, responding to it, making sense of it, multiplying its meanings.

Another difficulty facing printing of musical scores is the distance that the text is kept from the performer. In a performance music is usually placed further away from the eye than is the text of a book when being read, the factors of distance and proportion produce special problems of design. The musical text needs to be extra clear because of the distance kept from the performer.

HISTORY OF MUSIC PRINTING

The concept of representing music by notation is accredited to the Greeks since musical notation is as old as the alphabet, for that is as far as our knowledge goes; and the Greeks were the earliest to make use of this principle. By Pope Gregorys time, around the middle of the sixth century, it was important to write down music as it was realized that unless sounds are retained in the memory, they perish, because they cannot be written.

The time right after the invention of the printing press printed music became more popular. By 1465 printing began to supersede manuscript music. Despite the increase in using the printing press music printing remained very far behind the progress made in other branches of typography.

The first record of printed music dates back to 1473. This document only contains five notes of music. Even with the little amount of musical notation in this work it actually [formed] the foundation of music printing. The first book of printed music was made around this same time. It is a Gradual that lacks both a date and a printers name, but the type used to print the text is identical with that of the Constance Breviary one copy of which was lubricated in 1473. Another clue as to the date of this book is the fact that the press that was used to publish this book had a short life span.

The first printed music with an actual date is a Missal from Rome that was dated October 12, 1476. This music was printed in Roman notation, with initials in red or blue, and touches of yellow in the capitals, all added by hand.

Even though the printing press had been invented it was common in this time period to add details by hand. This would include adding colors or extra details that the printing press was not capable of doing. Sometimes the music staves would be blank and the notes would be added by hand.

By around 1690 improvements were being made to the design of printed music. John Heptinstall came up with the system of joining together the hooks of the quavers and semiquavers. Quavers and semiquavers refer to eighth and sixteenth notes that before this time had been written with separate flags. Hepinstall also introduced a further improvement, that of making the heads of the notes round instead of lozenge-shaped.

Even with these improvements in the seventeenth century there were still weaknesses in the printing of music. The weakness of movable type with musical notation lay in its clumsiness and lack of flexibility when used for printing chords and florid music.

The year 1683 marked the beginning of sheet music. This is quite different from sheet music as we know it today, as this was created by using metal sheets to engrave the music onto. Thomas Cross was practically the inventor of sheet music and after copying Purcells Sonatas of III parts signed his name on the bottom.

By the middle of the seventeenth century the variety of music expanded to include more concerti and symphonies, requiring more instruments and printed parts. This increase in parts meant that a large quantity of separate parts required had to be supplied in multiple copies more quickly than was usually possible by the use of movable type or by the employment of handcopyists.

The beginning of the eighteenth century marked the decline of music printed from type. The reason for this decrease
was that musical composition had become more elaborate and the old movable type was found inadequate to represent it. Copperplate engraving, which was then flourishing and largely used, was, therefore, naturally adopted. This method was, however, found expensive, so that it became in a measure superseded by the method of punching the notes on pewter plates.

Another important milestone in the eighteenth century was the printing of the first music book, in the United States, from movable type. This book was Fnff schne Geistliche Lieder, published in Germantown, Pennsylvania. It was published by Christoph Saur who was also responsible for designing the type.

At the end of the eighteenth century and the turn of the nineteenth century lithography was adopted as a primary source of printing music. Lithography involves [writing] on [a] stone with greasy ink, and then [coating] the surgace with a mixture of water, acid and gum Arabic. Finally [inking] the whole, and the ink was absorbed solely by the writing. Thus an impression was left which could be taken directly from the surface of the stone.

By the nineteenth century printing using lithography was not as common. This process was being switched from printing on stones to printing on metal plates [making] printing easier and quicker. This process produced many large works in the eighteenth century including eight full scores of Rossini operas and the seven-volume Raccolta di musica sacra.
Later in the nineteenth century lithographic stones were replaced by plates made of zinc and aluminum which increased the speed of production. More advances in printing have developed due to the invention of photographic techniques and other mechanical devices. It is possible with these machines to produce elaborate scores. However, despite the potential these new machines have the once tasteful and diversified art of music printing has generally reached a level of uniformity more widespread than at any time in its history. Failing a revolution in design or technique, the printed note now seems to have lost its former capacity to rival the range of processes and founts of type which were and still are available for the printing of books.

CONSTRAINTS OF PRINTING PRESS ON MUSIC

The invention of the printing press indirectly puts constraints on the performance of music. Constraints include things such as limited music interpretation, over editing and having numerous editions of the same piece of music.

In the Renaissance, when the printing press was first put to use, composers were worried about the effect that the printing press would have on their compositions. They thought that print represented a loss of control and compared their printed works to children sent out alone into the world.

With a standardized look modern printing has, printed music detracts from the art of the original manuscript. The desire of musical scores is to create a work that is as close to the composers original idea. Editions that have manuscript sources, , [promise] a version of the text that [seems] closer to the authors original or final intentions.

Many problems occur with the editors of music. It has been found that the variants introduced by earlier editors, the errors of compilers and typesetters, and the abbreviations used in early printed books all [stand] in the way of recovering the authors authentic text. In many editions something as basic as correct notes are not consistent which creates the need to identify the errors and correct them.

The invention of the printing press had a significant effect on history from that point and after. Type designs were created by various countries where the printing press had quickly spread to many countries.

Art is connected with printing in many ways. The printing press was another way for people to express their creativity. This could be done with adding color or other hand written details.

The link between music and printing is essential to understand before one can see the impact that the invention of the printing press had on music. The differences between literature and musical notation are significant. Musical texts are performance texts and are deciphered twice.

The history of printed music dates earlier than the invention of the printing press. The early forms of printing music ranged from engraving onto copper plates to carving pieces of wood.

Printed music adds many constraints on the performance of music. The musical interpretation can suffer from reading off of various scores. Also, it is easy for editors to make mistakes, which in turn causes confusion for the performer. Related to this, with many editions it is difficult for the performer to know which edition is the most accurate.

The printing of books is not what makes Gutenbergs invention so significant in history. The important thing to note about the printing press is its ability to produce a large amount of identical copies. This principle, with the help of technology, has made it possible to produce millions of identical newspapers within a few hours. It is this principle that has made Gutenbergs invention a turning point in the history of civilization.

9843b08fa84d4b4f9a47215bf6216db6

PORTRAYAL OF WOMEN IN THE NOVELS AND SHORT-STORIES OF BHARATI MUKHERJEE

PORTRAYAL OF WOMEN IN THE NOVELS AND SHORT-STORIES OF BHARATI MUKHERJEE AND EDITED POEMS OF HARPRASAD SHARMA BY DR. RAM SHARMA

Taking into account the complexity of life,different histories culture and different structures of values, the woman’s question despite basic solidarity, needs to be tackled in relation to the socio-cultural situation. The novels of Bharati Mukherjee are self actualising. Quest for the definition of self and search for identity are the main features of her women who are seen caught in the flux of tradition and tradition and modernity. Neither can they completely detach themselves from their part, nor do they have any certitude in the future. Bharati Mukherjee has interceded reworked the study of feminism in her writings. Central to her vision in The Holder Of The World, Wife and jasmine are issues related to women. Feminism in her works has something of What Caroll Smith Rosen Berg (1979) argues is -the emotional segregation of women and man, which brought about, led to the development of a specifically female world(137)-. The network of female world comes to us not only in Mukherjee’s novels but also in her collections of Short Stories. She advocates many faces of feminism encompassing agitation for equal opportunity, sexual antonomy and right of self determination.

Justification

Mukherjee’s fiction convinces us that gender is a multifaceted category open to change and variation, and reinforces, what Anna Lowenhaupt Tsing had suggested-that particular forms of female marginality must be examined in relation to the conditions of women’s lives-as immigrants, minorities, wealthy, poor, black, white, sex workers, maids, or academics (quoted by Rayaprol 135). Mukherjee’s depiction of women and their different relationships portrays the dominance of patriarchal practices in traditional society, as well as the forms of liberation and empowerment which are available to women in their diasporic situation. Mukherjee’s female characters are real, modern lifelike. They are typical representatives of young woman particularly of The Third World countries who cherish the dream of emigrating to America for higher education and higher wages, and then after arrival there, aspire to settle there permanently. Their situations and the difficulties they face are also realistically portrayed. In nearly, all stories there is a fixed pattern. In the first part of each story, the focus is on narrating the situation of an immigrant who is in the process of immigration or settling down and in the second part who is in the process of immigration or settling down and in the second part the protagoinst is invariably given to making love with a partner of the opposite sex who is rooted in the American soil.

Contents

1. Chapter I Introduction 2. Chapter II Portrayal of Women IN -The Tiger’s Daughter- 3. Chapter III Portrayal of Women IN -Wife- 4. Chapter IV Portrayal of Women IN -Jasmine- 5. Chapter V Portrayal of Women IN -The Holder Of The World- 6. Chapter VI Portrayal of Women IN -Leave It To Me- 7. Chapter VII Portrayal of Women IN -Desirable Daughters- 8. Chapter VIII Portrayal of Women IN -Tree Bride- 9. Chapter IX Portrayal of Women IN -The Short Stories- 10. Conclusion 11. Bibliography (i) Primary Sources (ii) Critical Studies On Bharati Mukherjee

Chapter I

Introduction

Bharati Mukerjee is a significant woman novelist. She was born on 27th July 1940, in a Bengali Brahmin family of Calcutta. Her father’s name was Sudhir Lal Mukherjee. He was a pharmaceutical chemist. Her mother, Bina Mukherjee was a housewife. Mukherjee spent her first eight years as a member with her parents and two sisters in a joint family . She lived with her parents and two sisters in London for about three years. in 1951 the family returned to Calcutta and she joined the English -speaking Loreto, convent school, run by Irish nuns. Mukherjee and her sisters were chauffeured to the convent school quite, Characteristic of this clash of Bengalis, the family “westernized” in the sense that English education was valued.

In 1958, Mukherjee’s father lost her partnership in the factory and moved him family to Baroda. Bharati Mukherjee completed her B.A. (Honours) English at university of Calcutta in 1959. She took her M.A. degree in English from the university of Baroda in 1961.She went to the University of obtained an MFA in creative writing in 1963 and a Ph.D. in English in 1969.

In the University of Iowa Mukherjee met Clark Blaise, a Canadians fellow student at the university of Iowa. She married him in 1963. She lived in Canada from 1966 to 1980. She got Canadian citizenship and lived in Toronto and then in Montreal. She held teaching portions at MC Gill university and Concordia university. She migrated to the U.S.A. in 1980 with her family and become a U.S.A citizen in 1988. She was awarded the “Prestigious Shastri Indo Canadian Institute Grant” during the year 1976-77. She was a recipient of “Guggenhein Foundation Award” in 1978-79 and “Canadian Government Award in 1982.” She also won the first prize from “Periodical Distribution Association in 1980″ for her short story “Isolated Incidents”. Mukherjee has also been honoured with the “National Book Critics Circle Award” for her short stories collection. “The Middleman and Other Stories in 1989″. Her other works are. Her creative five novels are: “The Tiger’s Daughter (1972), Wife (1975), Jasmine (1989), The Holder of the world (1993) , Leave It to me (1997), Desirable Daughters (2002) and The tree Bride (2004) and two collections of short stories : “Darkness (1985)” and ” The Middleman and Other Stories (1988)”. Her husband, Clark Blaise, helps her in her fiction. He is an American – Canadian author. He teaches also in the English department of Columbia university.She has co-authored with her husband two non-fictional works: first is ” Days and Night in Calcutta” in (1977), and second is ” The Sorrow and the Terror”

Chapter-II

Portrayal Of Women In -The Tiger’s Daughter-

The Tiger’s Daughter reflects the confrontation between illusion and reality. Tara, the protagoinst was packed off by her father at early age of fifteen at America, because he was prompted by suspicion and pain for his country. Tara is homesick in Poughkeepsie. Little things pained her. She sensed discriminaton if her room mate did not share her mango chutney. She defended her family and her country vehemently. She prayed to kali for strength, so that she would not break down, before the Americans. It was fate that she fell in love with an American. This novel begins with a reference to fate and astrology. It seems a device adopted by the writer around which she can weave her plots. Tara’s husband David was painfully Western, she was dutifully devious in her marriage. She could not communicate the finer nuances of her family background and life in Calcutta. Her husband asked nave questions about Indian Customs and Traditions. She felt completely insecure in an alien atmosphere. -Madisson Square was unbearable and her husband was after all a foreigner.- After a gap of seven years Tara planned a trip to India, for years she had dreamed of this return. She believed that all hesitations and all shadowy fears of the time abroad would be erased quite magically if she could return home to Calcutta. With the precision of a newspaper reporter, Bharati Mukherjee leads her heroine through a series of adventures and dis-adventures to a final self-realisation and reconciliation. Tara’s homesick eyes noticed may changes in the city of Calcutta. She was outraged, and could not respond to these changes. She longed for the Bengal Of Satyajit Rao , children running through cool green spaces, aristocrats despairing in music rooms of empty places. What confronted her was a restive city which forced weak men to fanatical defiance or dishonesty.

The writer interlinks the events-like Tara’s visit to funeral pyre at the river bank, her meeting with a small beggar girl affected with leprosy, the vision of beggar children eating off the street, the superficialities in the lives of her friends, the riots and demonstrations and her claustrophobic rape by the politician Tuntunwala to bring out the trauma of Tara’s visit to India. Tara’s visit to Darjelling is also marred by ugly and violent incidents. Many of Tara’s doubts and conflicts are resolved by the strength, determination and quite dignity of her parents. AntoniaWhitehead, an American lends Tara a fresher and clearer perspective about her country. Tara realized that her earlier responses to Calcutta had also been similarly impatient, menacing and equally innocent. The visit to the ashram of Mata Kananbala Devi makes her share of love for her mother as well as the worshippers.The Indian dream is shattered but the writer leads the heroine to a final reconciliation. At the end of the novel, Tara is involved in a violent demonstration, in which Joyob Roy Chaudhary, a symbol of the old world is brutally beaten to death. Pronob the youth tries to save him, but is himself injured in the process. This was a course of history, which could not be stopped. -She felt she had made peace with the city, nothing more was demanded.-

Chapter-III

Portrayal Of Women In -Wife-

Wife is a story of Dimple Das Gupta, a product of Calcutta’s middle class that values docility and submissiveness in women. From the very beginning we feel that the Dimple is not like a normal girl, she thinks that marriage is a blessing in disguise. It will bring her freedom, fortune and happiness. At last her father Mr. DasGupta married her daughter with Amit Basu. Basu’s house is not attractive, so she does not feel easy there. She doesn’t likes Amit’s mother and sister also. Her mother-in-law dislikes her name -Dimple’ and wants to call her -Nandini’. Dimple Basu has always lived in a fantastic world, a world which is created by herself. But when she confronts the hard realities of life the feathers of her imagination are clipped. Amit was not the man Dimple has imagined for her husband. With the passing of time the excitement of marriage diminishes and she becomes pregnant, She feels a strange sensation. Pregnancy is a boon for Indian women, but Dimple is singular in that -She thought of ways to get rid of -. So she decides to terminate her pregnancy, Only Dimple who can do herself abortion, She never repents her cruel deeds. Inamdar rightly says -Dimple is a psychic study of an abnormal woman-. Dimple wants to do away with the tradition taboos of a wife and she becomes on escapist, lost in her requestered world of fantasy. The killng of a mouse to her is a symbolic suicide of herself. In New York her circumscribed self finds expressions for her frustration in a chilling effect of self assertion- the act being the cold blooded murder of her husband. The name Dimple is quite scintillating and enticing but lexico- graphically it means any slight surface depression. This depression on the surface is again symbolic of the depression within her psyche, which is borne out of her irritable responses to the things around her. Bharati Mukherjee present the world of Dimple. A world of day dreams and nightmares and her morbid psyche through a series of grotesqe images. Dimple’s morbidity is evident while she is still at her parental home in the way she allows her conscious mind to be completely dominated by the colourful romance projected in the advertisements and the stories of magzines. Including herself in sexual fantasies with Cricket Stars, Young Cabinet Ministers and Heroes from novels, Dimple sets out on a long journey of unreal meaningless and morbid existence. Dimple in wife, is symbolized the predicament of a voice without articulation and without a vision. They are visionless because they are voiceless ; they are rootless because they are shootless. Uniquely Indian are superficially westernized, she is basically human. They give vent to their feminine sensibility in their frantic desire for an authentic communication with the self as well as the society.

Chapter-IV

Portrayal Of Women In Jasmine

Jasmine can be read as a feminist novel where the protagonist rebels not only against age-old superstitions and traditions, but also effects a proper balance between tradition and modernity. The novel is a celebration of the strength of a woman, not her weakness. In a language of emotion and meticulous metaphor using images provided by the woman protagonist the novelist has articulated the many sided pathos and rebellion of contemporary Indian Woman, not only in India but also in New World. In Jasmine a woman comes to terms with her own self. As Sumita Roy points out :- -Jasmine’s search for self-recognition takes her in social and spiritual direction–.till she arrives at a time when she can view the future -greedy with wants and reekless from hope-. From the very beginning Bharati Mukherjee has delineated the Jyoti of Hasanpur (who later on becomes Jasmine, and Jase and Jane ) as a rebel against blind beliefs and superstitions. Early in the novel Jyoti tries to raise herself above such blind belief in fate which is adumbrated by the astrologer thus -fate is Fate-. While scavenging firewood Jyoti gets a star shaped wound on her forhead. That scar becomes her third eye and through an archetypal image (Shiva’s Third Eye) Mukherjee shows that already Jyoti was peering out into invisible words (Now I am a sage-) The third eye gives her a wide and true perspective on life. She learns to look back to the past not like a coward bunkering herself inside nostalgia, sheathing her heart in a bullet-proof vest. For her, even memories are a sign of disloyality. Similarly with her third eye she learns to look into the future with pain and hope and when she embarkes into her final journey in America she is -greedy’ with wants and reekless with hopes. It is as if like Shiva she was swallowed the cosmos whole. Bharati Mukherjee also shows her woman protagonist repudiating centuries – old ugly Indian tradition of checking the boys horoscope.The second archetypal image that Bharati Mukherjee uses to bring out the protagonist’s feminist trait is that of Kali, the Goddess of Destruction. But since in Hindu mythology Kali is an incarnation of Durga, the Godess of Strength (shakti), the image here is more relevant to the strength of a woman like Jasmine who has embarked on a perilous journey to a new world of fulfill her husband’s dream. After her husband’s death in order to reach USA she stows in a boat captained by half-face. But after landing in America when half-face demands his price (nothing less than the satisfaction of his lurtful passions will do) Jasmine in a truly feminist gesture decides to kill the Devil Incarnate and Bharati Mukherjee brilliantly fuses two archetypal image to enact the killing of Kali : The Godess of Destruction and strength and the broken pitcher. This new identity in reality expresses another aspect of the -feminist- in the Indian fiction in English for the true feminist, in my eyes, is the one who has achieved a proper balance between tradition and modernity. In the beginning in America Jasmine lodges with Prakash’s Professorji-Mr. Vadhera. But she feel uncomfortable in Professorji’s house which they have converted into a Punjab ghetto. She wants to get away from the claustrophobic traditional -Indianness’ and Bharati Mukherjee brings out this contrast between tradition and modernity through the contrast between Professorji wife Nirmala and the protagonist Jasmine. Nirmala only takes, Jasmine both takes and gives. That is why she can escape the Indian ghetto in flushing and adopt herself to the patterns of dominant. American culture ( modernity) but that does not mean she throws to the wind her race, her religion , her beliefs (tradition). A true feminist Jasmine, does not hold fast to nostalgia that is dead but maintains certain basic traits of Indian Culture even after imbibing American Culture. Thus even after Jasmine has become Dulf’s day Mummy, a caregiver (not a servant, mind you) in the Taylor household her traditional roots break through again and again. With infinite care Bharati Mukherjee her protagoinst’s gradual transformation but some times there is a conflict between Jasmine’s two selves, one still holding fast to traditional Indian Values of life and the other an adventure in a Capitalistic Culture. But as an apotheosis of true Feminist spirit Jasmine does not hold fast to a -dead nostalgia- and as she tells Taylor about her past, it gets exorcised. She falls hopelessly in love with Taylor but the past comes back to destroy her present when she sees Sukhi, her husband’s murderer in the park and she decides to leave Claremont For Iowa. And here in Iowa Budd Ripplemeyer falls in love with her (and she gets a new identity : Jane Ripplemeyer ) . Budd courts her because for him she is the very embodiment of Eastern mystery. -Budd courts me because I am alien, I am darkness, mystery inscrutability.- Bharati Mukherjee passes the final judgement through her mouthpiece, Jasmine, we are once won over by her scintillating prose, her cadenced rhythm and above all her powerful feminist convictions. -I am caught between the promise of America and old world dutifulness.-

Chapter-V

Portrayal Of Women In -The Holder Of The World-

-The Holder Of The World- is a feminist novel. But as far as handling of feminist point of debate is concerned a parallel can be drawn between -The Journey Of Ithaca- and -The Holder Of The World-. -The Holder Of The World- is a story of Hannah Easton a abandoned child came to India in the seventeenth century and imbided herself in its culture. Hannah Easton arrives in India from Puritan Massachusetts and -translates herself’ into the Salem Bibi, the mistress of Raja Jadav Singh. The novel also gyrates around the tale of the Emperor’s Tear, the diamond which Aurangzeb hung in his war tent and which Hannah steals. But history loses the diamond. In the mid-twenteith century Beigh Marters and her boyfriend Venn Iyer of MIT strives to create the greatest -data plasma’ in the world. They ste to unearth something useful from layers of history, life and times of the Salem Bibi and the Emperor’s Tear. Beigh Masters visit the Maritime Museum in Massachussets to lock into the dusty debris of Mughal Miniature Paintings’ goes to auction houses and several historical records and memories. The transmigration of Salem Bibi’s soul through time and space becomes an allegory of Beifg Master’s personal discovery.Flavour of -historical feminism’ is insinuated here and there through the incidents of Hannah’s life. Her mother Rebecca leaves an ineradicable imprint on young Hannah’s mind which she disappears with a Nipmuc–The ultimate unnatural crime of Puritan Life–.She (Hannah) witnessed the fall, not Adam’s fall Rebecca’s fall. Hannah carries claustrophobic memories of the event through out her life. She too later profligates the concept of a proper English lady to become the bibi of Jadhav Singh, who is fighting the Mughals. She was brought up in an orthodox setup of fitch household, gained all the conventional wisdom and housekeeping, developed an obsessive love of needle work. Hannah neither forgets nor forgives her mother’s crime of elopement. She never shares her emotional tumult with anyone. In the Puritan family circle of fitch she could never imagine to talk to her mother. Her husband Gabriel Legge is a colourful raconteur, the swaggering seafarer, he never had time or sensibility to listen to Hannah. He is employed as a factor of the East India Company. Hannah’s fate brings her to India, her marriage with Gabriel emulates her mother’s behaviour. She finds a good friend in Bhagmati, her Indian ayah, who brings to her the glimmerings of understanding of an aged civilization. She narrates fragments from -The Ramayana’. She is attracted to the events of Sita’s life because she proves her purity to her husband and to her society in a trial by fire. The God Of Fire, Agni, embraces her and expels her unscorched. An interesting parallel is that Hannah’s life was also a trial by fire , but unlike Sita she never withstands Agnipariksha for the sake of her husband. Gabriel wanted Hannah to triumph over her Puritan sensibilities and she obliged him, because she loved things of life. Legge joins a group of pirates and during one of his misadventures with Haj pilgrims he is separated from his wife. Hanna escapes with Bhagmati to Panpur under the protection of Raja Jadav Singh of Devgad. Bhagmati and Hannah become the guests of Raja. She steps into a new world of Hinduism. She and Jadav Singh wooed each other. The Nawab Haider Beg despatches his most ruthless commander , Morad farah, to cage Raja, Jadav Singh unsurp the diamond, Emperor’s tear and bring Hannah, the firangi lady. Jadav Singh with no option, bundled Hannah and Bhagmati into a palanquin and a disguised Raja into another. On their way to Nawab the Raja attacked the Mughal army. Hannah eventually kills Morad saves Jadav’s life and brings him back to Panpur. She decides to offer her life to end the war, goes to transact with the Emperor but is taken hostage by him. Whenever, Aurangzeb comes to see her, she is reminded of Ravana the demon king of Lanka in Muslim disguise. Though she fails in her mission for armistice between the Raja and the Emperor, somehow, she purloins the diamond- the Emperor’s Tear. She hands over the diamond to Bhagmati. The diamond is ultimately found by Beigh Masters in a cyberspatial finale. Bhagmati thrusts the world’s most famous diamond into her dying womb. It is in her grave that they find the holder of the world of the seventeenth century. Bharati Mukherjee sees herself as a unique human being and gives message to her fellow female. In -The Holder Of The World-, she suggests two advantages of Women Liberation. Hannah and Bhagmati in -The Holder Of The World- recurrently defy estrangement in the society they live and get the answer in rejecting cultural stereotypes they develop the life of their own outside the home. The Salem Bibi provocates Masters Beigh to unreveal the mystery which surrounded her life and the diamond. Mukherjee devotes her attention to female issues in the historical times as well as in the contemporary society. Mukherjee and Master Beigh involve deeply in the Salem Bibi in making sense from the historical evidences because conventional answers no longer satisfy. They feel social and cultural change in a recursive process and women have to play steering role.

Chapter VI

Portayal Of Women In -Leave It To Me-

The protagonist is a Eurasian Orphan, Debbie Devi who is adopted by an upstate New York family of Italian Origin. Born in India and raised as an adopted child, Devi Dee travels through America to find her bio-mom. By the time she has arrived in San Francisco and taken a band of aging ex-hippies and a psychotic Vietnam Vet, her identity crisis looms large. It leads her to track down her bio-parents in Laxmipur, Devigaon, India, and the orphanage where she raised-the Gray Sisters–Soeuss Grises–Sore Grease-in Mount Abu. She learns from Fred, her hired detective, that her mother was the Hippie follower of a sex-age guru, and her father the founder of the ashram, serial killer Romeo Hawk Haque. The offspring of this unlikely liaison, Devi Dee-presumed missing or dead is saved by nuns and shipped abroad to America, where she is raised as the adopted child of the Di Martino family. Twenty three years later having graduated from Sunny, Albany, she sets out to seek her bio-mom in off-beat California. This novel makes the predicament of the protagonist crystal-clear, Mukherjee deals with the reality of -Time-Travel-. In -Leave It To Me- Mukherjee reverts to her earlier obsession with an exile’s agony.

Chapter-VII

Portrayal Of Women In -Desirable Daughters-

-Desirable Daughters- follow the diverging paths taken by three Calcutta-born sisters as they come of age in a changing world. Tara, Padma and Parvati were born into a wealthy Brahmin family presided over by their dothing father and their traditionalist mother. Intelligent and artistic, the girls are nevertheless constrained by a society with little regard for women. Their subsequent rebellion will lead them in different directions to different continents and through different circumstances that strain yet ultimately strengthen their relationship. Bharati mukherjee has written a remarkable novel that is both the portrait of a traditional Indian Brahmin family and a contemporary American story of a woman who is in many ways broken with tradition but still remains tied to her native country. This is about three Bengali sisters who grew up in Calcutta and eventually end up in three different corners of the globe leading three different lifestyles. One lives a comfortable life in a posh residential locality in Mumbai keeping herself busy in household chores. Another of the sister ends up New Jersey among the elite class of migrant Indians. The third ends up in the West in California Leading a more pedestrian life after getting a divorce from her business tycoon husband. It’s an interesting tale about how life puts us in different circumstances we hardly imagined ourselves in and how each of us overcomes the challenges that life poses us. -Desirable Daughters- is a melting pot of styles. It’s a middlebrove women’s novel (think an Indian Hannah and her sisters) ; a postcolonial tale life with meditations on belonging and exile, and a thriller, complete with a mysterious stranger and quirky cop. Throw in a touch of Hindu style magic realism and stir. Tara Chatterjee, the afformentioned narrator, is the youngest of three sisters from the wealthy Calcutta family trapped between the old world and the new. At nineteen she was married off to Bish Chatterjee, who became a Silicon Valley Billionare. Now pushing 40, tara is a divorcee living in San Francisco with her teenage son and her boyfriend, a Buddhist earthquake-proofer whose truck advertises him as the -Zen Master of Retro Fit-. Although she left Calcutta decades ago, Tara radar is always on alert, encoding names, manners, and accents whenever she encounters strangers of Indian descent. This ethnic antenna comes in hardy when young man named Chris Dey surfaces, claiming to be the illegitimate son of her eldest sister, Padma. Tara senses there is something fishy about him and call her riblings, hoping to clear up the mystery. These searching conversations with Padma (a multicultural performance artist in New Jersey) and Parvati (who lives in Bombay and, worries incessantly about crime) provide some of the funniest, most astute scenes in the novel. Mukherjee has perfect emotional pitch, nailing the conflicted, sometimes vicious dynamics among sisters. Tara initially describes her family as close ; in reality, she and her sisters routinely whitewash their sadness. -The rules of our transcontinental relationships are instituted, never acknowledged.- Tara admits at one point, – We accept that given the international phone rates, our personal defeats are too banal to waste money on.- When she tries to pump them for information on the mysterious Chris Day, they scold her for tainting their cloistered, halcyon childhood with scandal. After some sleuthing on Tara’s part, she discovers that her father, a religious Brahmin, forbade Padma from marrying her Christian boyfriend, Ronald Dey, she also learns that the man who claims to be Chris Dey may be an importer linked to an Indian gangster syndicate who is targeting Bish Chattrejee’s tech empire. This thriller plotline isn’t entirely convicing because Mukherjee doesn’t take it seriously, mainly using Chris Dey as a device for transporting the specters of the past into the present. She traces a fuzzy line back several generation. -to the decision of Ronald’s grandfather to convert to protestantism and gain favour from the British and lose status with the Hindus.- Or may be even farther back to Tara’s own great grandfather, an educated Bengali who turned his back on colonial society and become a born-again Hindu, setting her family on the path of orthodoxy and repression. From a respected writer of fiction comes a stirring novel of three Calcutta born women, two continents, and a perilous journey from the old world to the new. Mukherjee weaves together stories of the sister’s ancestors, their childhood memories, and dramastic scenes from India’s History. Chapter-VIII

Portrayal Of Women In -Tree Bride-

The -Tree Bride- takes up from her last novel, Desirable Daughters, ended. It’s a second in a trilogy. The protagonist, Tara Chatterjee, is a savvy, cosmopolitian world-traveller very taken with her priveledged life as a Silicon Valley magnate. But when her home is firebombed just as she may be reconciling with her ex, she begins to yearn for home and tradition. A trip back to India rekindles a desire to find her family’s ancestral roots and place in the history of pre-independent India. The novel begins on this note with the most American of all searches : the desire to trace one’s ancestry. Tara is fascinated by an ancestor : her almost namesake, Tara Lata, a five year old girl who was a victim of the archaic custom of child marriage-atradition even her father, a university graduate and lawyer, willingly follows. It is 1879, and Tara Lata’s wedding party is traveling through a dark jungle to rendezvous with the bridegroom’s family, who instead of greeting them hurls curses at the bride, calling her unlucky because the boy bridegroom had been bitten fatally by a snake. To save her from a life of a degradation, widowhood, and shame, Tara Lata’s father -marries- her to the God of the forest, and she becomes the legendary Tree Bride. The young girl retreats to her father’s house and makes it a refugee for the poor, the sick, and finally the fighters for Indian Independence. She is dragged from her home in 1944 by colonial authorities, who announce her death six days later. Mukherjee does not have an aunt like Tara in the family, but she says that -three were many Tara Lata’s married to trees, so that they could have a life on earth, a place in society where they would not be considered outcasts, and a place in Heaven. The ancient Hindus believed that widows are unlucky and would descend to hell.- With ayoung woman trying to find herself and how she fit into her place in the universe, the story traces the British Colonial rule in India, its contributions and its ultimate downfall. While she is struggling with the thought of getting back with her ex-husband and being pregnant with her child, Tara tries to understand her heritage and the actions of her ancestors which may and may not have contributed to the sum total of the person she has evolved into. Every action in the universe has an equal and opposite reaction, nothing in the universe ever gets lost ; everything is connected. The -Tree Bride- is a one person narrative of British history in India. A great deal of detail has gone into recreating the British men who left their homeland to fulfill what they believed was a higher purpose of instilling order and discipline in foreign lands. Mukherjee with her insightful understanding of women nature deep psychological analysis never really succeeds in bringing the deeds British men to life. But she does shine with her evocation of the city of her birth, the Brahmin society’s snobbery and in capturing the intricacies of Tara and her namesake -The Tree Bride-.

Chapter-IX

Portrayal Of Women In -The Short Stories Of Bharati Mukherjee-

Bharati Mukherjee has written two collections of short

stories namely -Darkness (1985)- and -The Middleman and Other Stories-

(1989). Mukherjee’s Darkness consists of twelve short stories, and -The

Middleman and Other Stories- comprises eleven short stories very varied in

theme and technique. In many short stories of Bharati Mukherjee the

protogoinst are woman who are married or divorced and have an inclination

to from relationships which terminate in several misadventure. These female

characters can be called the liberated women. They pick and mix with men

so freely and satisfy their lust for sensuality and then instead of stopping

their move on to form new arrangements. The traditional view of seeing

these love-relationships terminating in marital unions or well established

love-affairs is nowhere distinctly conceived. On the contrary, their

disorderly conduct and promiscuity raise doubts about their notions and

dream of immigration and settlement in the United State. But one would

certainly be moved by the pathetic situation of kids born of unstabilized

marriages or marriages breaking up too soon making the kids grow into

freaks and emotionally unbalanced individuals. From the traditional way of

thinking of non-American societies, the new world life embraced by the

immigrants may appear to be seriously deficient in a moral system. To be

completely liberated in matters of sex may create more problems than it may

solve. The family life in America may appear to be so very unsecure and

unstable.

Bharati Mukherjee’s concern with the processes of

effecting transformations of the protagoinsts and other immigrants into

American citizens. Each one of the stories in one way or another turns on the

theme of fulfillment which is brought about almost mechanically without

first developing an appropriate emotional or sentimental matrix out of which

the desire for a matrimonial or love-relationship might genuinely result.

Panna, the protagoinst of The Wife’s Story has walked out of the traditional

Hindu Marriage, left Ahemdabad for Menhattan where she experiences

freedom and individuality. She learns a great deal from the way charity

chin’s lurid love life has -replaced inherited notions of marital duty.-

-The Middleman-, the title story is about the dangerous

career and fortunate survival of the half caste Maria narrated from the point

of an Iraqi observer participant. Mukherjee’s next story -The Tenant’ is

more successful and artistically finished than some of the earlier ones

discussed here, Maya Sanyal, a Ph. D. in Comparative Literature teaches

World Literature at the University Of Northern Iowa. For Maya, -no folly is

ever lost-. For , History is a net, the kind of safety net traveling trapeze

artists fall into, when inattentive or clumsy. Mukherjee’s Jasmine destined to

be developed into a novel a later date, It begins to be a matter of fact way.

Jasmine came to Detroit from Port Of Spain, Trinidad, by way of Canada.

Angella is the short story in Mukherjee’s Darkness , the

short story collection. Angella, the protogoinst tells us the sad story of an

immigrant from Bangladesh who can only dream of love, domesticity,

babies and all the comforts that a doctor’s wife can possibly enjoy in the

new world. Mukherjee’s second short story in this volume -The Lady From

Lucknow- is ironical in theme and technique. Beginning the story with a

surrealistic picturing of a broken heart from the point of view of a small and

possibly shocked girl of four. Mukherjee develops the theme of passionate

love into a major cultural paradex as a Muslim protogoinst matures into a

young and voluptus woman married to an engineer manager name Iqbal Iry.

-The World according to her.- Mukherjee’s next story the protogoinst Ratna

herself the offspring of an international marriage in 1936 (she had a

Czechoslovak mother and a Bengali father), is married to a liberal white

Canadian, probably a WASP. The next story entitled -The Father’ deals with a tricky situation in which the cultural and enthic encounter is not between

individuals but attitudes acquired as well as preserved ; between reason and

superstition. The Indian immigrants-the Bhowmicks are sufficiently

acclutured but not fully assimilated. The parents are horried to knowthat

their brilliant plain daughter, Babil, an Electrical Engineer wants to have a

baby by artificial insemination outside Wedlock. When confronted by the

-fantasising’ father and the shocked mother, the pregnant Babil replies ;

-Who needs a man? She hissed. The father of my baby is a bottle and

syringe. Men louse up your lives. I just want a baby.- -orbiting is a story of

great significance. When brent listens to Ro’s experiences in his home

country Afghanistan , he is for the first time exposed to Third World

Passion. Ro’s beloved Rindy comes to know for the first time that words like

Kandhar and Pamir are not Polish words but important names associated with Afghanistan.

Conclusion

Mukherjee’s female characters are real, modern lifelike. They are typical representatives of young woman particularly of The Third World countries who cherish the dream of emigrating to America for higher education and higher wages, and then after arrival there, aspire to settle there permanently. Their situations and the difficulties they face are also realistically portrayed. In nearly, all stories there is a fixed pattern. In the first part of each story, the focus is on narrating the situation of an immigrant who is in the process of immigration or settling down and in the second part the protagoinst is invariably given to making love with a partner of the opposite sex who is rooted in the American soil. There is little or no consideration that the sexual adventure of the female protagoinst with the male member of may amount to adultery or cause serious protest from the housewife. In fast, while such adulterous transactions are carried on freely and even promiscuously, the housewives take them as normal behaviour. The moral norms do not exist at all, or that sexual ptomiscuity is a socially recognized fact. The world then appears so ordained as to give, both man and woman equal dignity and equal freedom. It would then appear to be a world in which neither of them is seriously restrained or bound by obligations towards the children or to the collective family life. The stories have the form of the sonnet in the sense that while the first part develops the situation, the second part suddenly takes a decisive through expected turn culminating in the passionate, amoral adventure. By this sudden switch over to thesensual romantic theme, the story seem to develop a tendency towards the pornographic.

POEMS OF HARPRASAD SHARMA POSTED AND EDITED BY DR. RAM SHARMA IN 2007 DISPLAY OF MANKIND

Those days are gone , When love and compassion was shown, Now it is display of mankind, Intrigues and conspiracies without mind, Where such kinds of love will be found, He receives his friends in many a way, Where sun can be shown of hope but not a single ray, A figure of clay will a mundane game play, Where such a literary figure will be find, Who will show such kind of display of mankind ————————————————————————-

BUBBLE BY HARPRASAD SHARMA EDITED- DR. RAM SHARMA False attachment to worldly things, Nothing but pain and sorrow brings, Cling not to earthly things that seem, to sages like an empty dream, This body which is made of dust, Will one day like a bubble burst A frame which is subject to decay, Why grieve for that in such a way?

DR. RAM SHARMA C-26, SHRADHAPURI PHASE2, KANKERKHERA, MEERUT, U.P.

9843b08fa84d4b4f9a47215bf6216db6

Meditation Music

Forget emptying your thoughts. That happens on its own. The purpose of meditation is to slow down our brain waves. This is also known as brain entrainment. The benefits of meditation are some of the greatest that can be experienced. Meditation can be used to achieve deep relaxation and ease of stress. Meditation is used for inspiration, for healing, for eliminating pain, for learning, for spiritual growth…the list goes on and on. All of these are actually effects of different brainwave states. Meditation is how we move from one state to another.

Think of the gears on a car or a bike. That’s what brain waves are like. Meditation is like the assembly that is responsible for shifting the gears. If you don’t know about the effects of different brain waves and you try to meditate, you are essentially trying to shift gears without knowing what effect they will have. You may be able to get the car to go, but there’s a good chance it won’t be a fun ride. Not to mention that you might burn out the clutch in the process. Not understanding some of these things about meditation could definitely burn you out if you do it wrong. However, just like knowing how to shift gears can get you very far, very efficently, knowing how to meditate can do the same.

There are several brain waves that we operate in but the four most commonly known are BETA, ALPHA, THETA, and DELTA in that particular order. To liken it to a car again, that is first, second, third, and fourth gear. Shifting from one to the next can happen within meditation. This “shifting” is known as BRAIN ENTRAINMENT. There are many techniques that can be used to manually shift through these state, but this particular article is about using meditation music with binaural beats. Meditation music with binaural beats is one of the most effective, one of the fastest ways that you can safely shift brain waves.

Music with binaural beats is simply music that has a different beat in each ear. For example you may have a beat at 850hz(cycles per second) playing in your left ear and a beat at 870hz playing in your right ear. The brain makes up the difference. Stereo headphones must be used. The frequencies are usually below your conscious level of hearing, and are in the background of some soothing music. Throughout the song, the frequencies are gradually brought closer together, until the desired frequency is reached. Generally meditation and brainwave music with binaural beats indicates which frequencies are influenced in the music.

Keeping your eyes closed during the meditation process will make the process much easier and faster. This is because the different frequencies of light and colors etc can make it difficult to slow down the brain waves.

Not all meditation music has binaural beats in it. These will work much more slowly, with the exception of isochronic tones, but if the music relaxes you, they can be used. The most effective way to change brainwave frequencies/states with music is to first match your present state, as much as is possible. This will be the BETA state in most cases. I have meditation music free to download on the page listed in my bio. The free meditation music track is designed to bring you from 20hz to 8hz in less than 6 minutes. This will prepare you for Theta. And Theta is the game changer.

Here is a brief overview of the brain wave states.

Beta(12hz-40hz) is our everyday waking state of mind. It is what we operate in most of the day and it is not conducive to deep learning or relaxation. Just imagine driving all day in first gear. Your engine would be screaming but you’d hardly be moving. That’s what we do with our bodies.

The next state is the Alpha(8hz-12hz) brainwave frequencies. This state is very good for focus and deep imprinting onto the mind. The alpha state is associated with deep relaxation and is the beginning of access to the subconscious mind. Information can be inserted 100 times faster and more effectively in the alpha state than in the beta state. It is the state you are in when you sit down to read a book, and all of your relaxed, undivided attention is on that book.

Theta(4hz-8hz) is an incredible state to be in and is ideal for meditation. This is the state where REM(rapid eye movement) or dreaming sleep happens. In the theta and delta states, your Reticular Activating System is inactive. In both Theta and Delta states, infomation can get inserted 1,000 times faster than in the beta state. Potential behavioral changes happen in theta. Influence on the subconscious mind is unrestricted. Changes in genetic patterns can be influenced in the theta state, as well as physical healing. High access to field of consciousness(quantum field) is able to be attained.

The Delta(0.1hz-4hz) is a very deep state, and is usually only reached when in a deep dreamless sleep. It embodies everything in the theta state and more. Extremely high access to the quantum field is in the delta brain waves. HGH(human growth hormone) is released at lower delta frequencies. Pain is eliminated. An extreme sense of oneness is reached.

For many, music is a part of life. Using music like meditation music, is a completely different experience. This is music that changes things.

* Dennis Andrew *
NNOS Studios Brainwave and Meditation Music

9843b08fa84d4b4f9a47215bf6216db6

How to free download Vevo music video from YouTube and convert Vevo music video to Mp3

When we want to find some high quality songs for party or just relax ourselves, we would like to visit Vevo. Vevo is a good website to enjoy all kinds of wonderful music videos, search for latest official music videos as well as original premiere performances by super starts. But as we all know this website doesn’t offer video free download service. So if you want to save VEVO music videos for playback offline or permanent preservation, a good YouTube video downloader can well serve you. With this free YouTube downloader, you can even convert Vevo music video to MP3 so that you can listen to your favorite Vevo music anytime and anywhere even when you have no access to internet.

Among all YouTube downloader, BlazeVideo Free YouTube Downloader stands out for its smart capability in downloading YouTube video without any quality loss. Moreover, it is not just a single YouTube video downloader; it is also a reliable video converter. You could convert music video into MP3 for playback on your iPod or MP3 player. Furthermore, as a YouTube Downloader, it is completely free; you could take it home just by one click on the Download Now. Now let’s have a quick look at a step-by-step guide below.

How to download and convert Vevo music video to Mp3

In the case when you download YouTube music videos just for getting MP3 audios, this utility can well meet your need in helping converting already-downloaded YouTube Vevo music videos into mp3 audio with keeping the original audio quality for better enjoyment on your portable MP3 player like iPod on-the-go.To user’s surprise, this special feature is also for free, you do not need to make any payment, but just enjoy the decent service it offers.

1: Navigate to play Vevo music video you like

Enter youtube.com on any of the following browsers: IE, Firefox and Chrome. Enter youtube.com on any of the following browsers: IE, Firefox and Chrome. Find the Vevo music video you want to download and then click it to play.

2: Free Download Vevo music video

While enjoying watching, do not forget to download it as sometimes these music sounds so dulcet that we would forget our plan. Open the free Downloader, paste the URL of the music video into the URL box on the app, and select an output file path.

3: Convert Vevo music video to Mp3

Then tick the box -Convert Video to-. At this time, you’ll find the drop-down list of output formats in the box -Convert Video to- at the lower position of the main interface becomes available. Simply clicks on the drop-down list then selects the Mp3 output format at the bottom. Then click Start to convert the Vevo music video into Mp3.

9843b08fa84d4b4f9a47215bf6216db6