Relationship Between The Printing Press And Music

When thinking about the invention of the printing press an immediate response is to think about the impact that turning point in history had on literature. Often the musical significance of this incredible invention is overlooked.This article will outline the early history of the printing press. Almost as soon as the printing press was developed, type designs were introduced. Type designs were created and linked to printing in different countries.

Even today, it is possible to see the effects that the printing press has on modern living. With having written words it was possible to be expressive through writing. Printed word established the relationship between art and printing. Decorative printing was a step in developing art in printing. To understand the link between printing and music it is important to know the difference between literature printing and musical notation. One obvious difference is that music texts are for performance. Another significant difference is that music texts are deciphered twice: first, by the performer and then by the listener.

The printing of music creates a direct connection between the composer and the performer. It is essential that the printing of music is as accurate as possible as this will be the only communication between the creation and reproduction.

Before the printing press original manuscripts, or hand written copies, were used to perform from. The printing press changed the size of pieces from the original manuscripts. Reading off of a smaller score puts constrictions to the performance of the work.

Published music was invented before the invention of the printing press. Early published music was reproduced by engraving on plates. This process was time consuming and very difficult.

Despite the fact that the printing press was invented in the fifteenth century, the first copyright law was not in place until the early eighteenth century. The purpose of having a copyright varies throughout the world. When copyright was first established it was used as a noun, literally meaning having the right in the copy. Having the right copy refers to giving credit to the individual who created the original idea. The shift today is the use of copyright as a verb the right to copy.

The printing press put many constraints on music. One constraint was the interpretation of music was limited. As the performance text grew further away from the composers original manuscript, the musical interpretation grew further away as well. Also, as mentioned earlier, there was a size difference in the paper produced from the printing press and original manuscripts. This size different changes the way the performer visually reads a piece.

With music being reproduced by printing presses and publishing houses, the need for a music editor arose. There are many disadvantages to have an editor working with music scores. A large problem musicians face is working with scores that have been over edited. Another related problem is the fact that many editors have not done significant research before they add material to the score.

With the rise of publishers, numerous editions are created, printing the same material. It is possible to buy two different editions of a piece with a discrepancy in something even as basic as having the correct notes. Some editions are not as researched as others, creating interpretations that may not be close to the composers original intention.

HISTORY OF PRINTING PRESS

Printing previous to 1500 was referred to as the incunabula period. Incunabulum is derived from Latin which means cradle, therefore symbolizing the beginning of the art of printing. By the eighteenth century the term was applied to all books printed before 1500. In the nineteenth century, incunabulum meant any individual item that emanated from the printing presses of the fifteenth century.
Johann Gutenberg
Johann Gensfleisch zum Gutenberg began working with the invention of the printing press around 1440. He began working on this when he was a political exile at Strasbourg. Many people mistake Gutenbergs invention with the invention of published books. This belief is reinforced by the inevitable association of Gutenbergs name with the 42-line Bible. Gutenberg should receive credit for the invention of the method of producing punches and matrices to be used with a mold for metal types of identical height. Thereby it was possible to produce a type having a uniform rectangular body. The individual letters so cast could be placed by the compositor in proper juxtaposition to one another in free combination. They were interchangeable, hence the term movable metal types.

This printing press was large and very difficult to operate. The awkward machine made presswork toilsome; and it was incapable of printing a full sheet of paper at one pull. Despite this fact it still increased the number of literate people in the world.

Gutenberg quit working on the printing press for two main reasons. The first is that his source of funding was taken away. Gutenberg had a patron who in 1455 foreclosed on him and gave most of the presses and types to his soon to be son-in-law Schffer of Gernsheim. The second reason the Gutenberg gave up working on the printing press was due to physical reasons. Gutenberg became blind after 1460 and abandoned any further pursuit of his invention.

Gutenberg died in 1468 and his epitaph reads to the immortal memory of Johannes Gensfleisch, the inventor of the art of printing, who has deserved well of every nation and language. His invention influenced the rest of the world for many centuries after his death. After the early invention of the printing press it reached a state of technical efficiency not materially surpassed until well into the nineteenth century.

Consolidation Era

After the invention of the printing press, from around 1550 until 1800, the consolidation era was established. As mentioned earlier, no technical advancements were made to the printing press during this time. Neither were there any new inventions, regarding the printing press, made during this time. The consolidation era, as the name suggests, stabilized the printing industry.

During this time the working middle class people had the opportunity to learn how to read and write. Before this it was reserved as a privilege for the wealthy to be literate. Because more people were now reading it was necessary to provide information to people for them to read. The general publics desire for quick information and for regular entertainment brought into existence the periodical press.

The first public library was developed during the consolidation era. Before libraries existed with manuscripts but were for private use only, owned by various people like Julius Caesar.

Censorship of printed word was established in the consolidation era. It was the responsibility of the lay and the church to censor the publications. Printers and publishers did not always appreciate censorship and would use the smallest possible size, the largest possible types, and every other device which a century-old fight against censorship had taught them.

Nineteenth Century Printing

In the nineteenth century the technique of printing gradually changed. There was a hesitation from the public to advance further in the printing press in order to avoid mechanization. By the late nineteenth century, the concept of mechanization [began] to make an impact on letter-founding, type-composition, and bookbinding, and not until the late 1880s did the combined casting and composing machine become a commercial reality.
The nineteenth century brought about technical progress in the printing press. This was the century that began the slow process of turning printing from a trade into an industry.

The strict regulations for censorship had been lifted during this century. Censorship was now based on voluntary [agreements] of the parties concerned and not on compulsory measures of the authorities.
It was during this century that governments used the press for large scale, direct, and incessant appeals and orders to the masses. The Revolutionary and Napoleonic France governments were first to use press this way.
Type Design

After the death of Gutenberg in 1468, the printing press had spread throughout many different countries. By the middle of the sixteenth century every nation developed a certain type design. Type design throughout history has always had a deeper, more political meaning than it appears at first. When Roman and Italic types were invented they
represented the humanism in people. The type design of Germany, Russia, and Turkey represented the resistance to humanism. The importance of type design can be noted by the recent transition to the Latin alphabet by the Germans and Turks is a major step towards the unity of world civilization; just as the refusal of post-Lenin Russia to abandon the Cyrillic letter nay, its progressive imposition on the Soviet colonials is a significant omen of the deep cleavage between East and West.

ART IN PRINTING

After discussing type design it is possible to see the relationship between art and printing. With the beginning of printed books there was a high level of technical achievements but this was combined with great beauty of design, that the printing of music began. Visual effects of printed music are vital to the overall effect the music will have on the performer and audience. Engraving of music connected the visual aspect of music to the notating process. This process of engraving naturally led to a great increase in the use of pictorial title pages and decorated borders. Illustrations were sometimes used, even as far as to having comic pictures between staves and in the margins of the music.

Difference Between Printing and Music

There is a large difference between printing music and printing solely verbal text. A quote from Kings Four Hundred Years of Music Printing summarizes the difference between literature and musical notation:
the letters forming a word represent a concept to be conveyed by the eye to the brain, in music the note, whether accompanied by a text or not, is primarily an instruction to bring into action lungs or fingers, or both combined, in order to produce a sound at a certain pitch and of a certain duration.

The difficulty with musical notation is that the symbols need to be made as clearly and precise as possible.
There are two aspects of musical notation: horizontality and verticality. Horizontality refers to the horizontal aspects of music notation. One point in horizontality is the relationship between each note. This includes the intervallic relationship from note to note. Another aspect of horizontality is the changes in spacing between one note or group of notes and the next, as required by changes in time-values.

The vertical aspect of musical notation sets it completely apart from verbal text, as the concept of writing two words at the same time is not practical. The vertical part of musical notation is having the two or more notes in the same alignment on the stave. This vertical arrangement is important in vocal works as a precise vertical relationship has also to be established between the notes on the stave and the syllables of the underlying text.

If the printed musical score is altered in any way the horizontality and verticality could potential have a different meaning to the reader. This could in turn alter the performance and bring the work further away from the composers original idea.

Another main difference between music texts and literature is the fact that musical texts are performance texts. Musical texts presume a musical performance, with the result that music as manifest in print leads a dual life as text and performance. Understanding that in earlier times music reached people mainly by performances it is important to note that any history of the musical cultures of print must engage performative issues.

Deciphering music as a performative text adds certain angles that are not present in literature. It is important to note that performance and print both shape the way music conveys its meaning; yet while historians of music have long been cognizant of the former that performers interpret and mold the meaning of the texts they realize they have rarely theorized the implications of print in similar terms. Often performers will trust what is written on the page instead of looking for the true intention of the composer. The effect that printed music has on performance is so great that it [stands] alongside performance in the triangle if [forms] with composers and audiences.

Musical texts are deciphered twice which does not occur often in literature. Musical text meanings unfold twice as they are read both by musicians and then by audiences. In the first instance, the black signs cast across the pages of musical scores give musicians instructions for how to perform a given piece; the notes help musicians to produce a reading of a piece, public or private, whether with instruments, voice, or both. The only link that the audience has to the music is what the performer portrays and the only thing that the performer can give the audience is what he takes from the musical score.

Due to the fact that reading music produces an audible sound, it is understood that this type of reading is not transparent, like most literature texts. Interpretation of musical scores creates variant readings with each performance, impressing their individual marks upon the works they play. Because of this fact it is argued that musicians approximate texts. The appearance of the musical text is essential for a successful interpretation as it can [disrupt] the linear continuum between composer and audience in the same way that musical performances do. Print complicates and expands this middle ground by multiplying the material forms of texts and thereby multiplying their meanings.

It is possible to compare the performance of musical scores to reading a book to someone that is illiterate. The musicians mediate what for many listeners is an illegible text, pages of hieroglyphs that require special literacy: the score. Notation alone sets music apart from literature.

Like someone telling a story, the performance of a musical text becomes available to an audience of listeners who in turn read the music they hear, responding to it, making sense of it, multiplying its meanings.

Another difficulty facing printing of musical scores is the distance that the text is kept from the performer. In a performance music is usually placed further away from the eye than is the text of a book when being read, the factors of distance and proportion produce special problems of design. The musical text needs to be extra clear because of the distance kept from the performer.

HISTORY OF MUSIC PRINTING

The concept of representing music by notation is accredited to the Greeks since musical notation is as old as the alphabet, for that is as far as our knowledge goes; and the Greeks were the earliest to make use of this principle. By Pope Gregorys time, around the middle of the sixth century, it was important to write down music as it was realized that unless sounds are retained in the memory, they perish, because they cannot be written.

The time right after the invention of the printing press printed music became more popular. By 1465 printing began to supersede manuscript music. Despite the increase in using the printing press music printing remained very far behind the progress made in other branches of typography.

The first record of printed music dates back to 1473. This document only contains five notes of music. Even with the little amount of musical notation in this work it actually [formed] the foundation of music printing. The first book of printed music was made around this same time. It is a Gradual that lacks both a date and a printers name, but the type used to print the text is identical with that of the Constance Breviary one copy of which was lubricated in 1473. Another clue as to the date of this book is the fact that the press that was used to publish this book had a short life span.

The first printed music with an actual date is a Missal from Rome that was dated October 12, 1476. This music was printed in Roman notation, with initials in red or blue, and touches of yellow in the capitals, all added by hand.

Even though the printing press had been invented it was common in this time period to add details by hand. This would include adding colors or extra details that the printing press was not capable of doing. Sometimes the music staves would be blank and the notes would be added by hand.

By around 1690 improvements were being made to the design of printed music. John Heptinstall came up with the system of joining together the hooks of the quavers and semiquavers. Quavers and semiquavers refer to eighth and sixteenth notes that before this time had been written with separate flags. Hepinstall also introduced a further improvement, that of making the heads of the notes round instead of lozenge-shaped.

Even with these improvements in the seventeenth century there were still weaknesses in the printing of music. The weakness of movable type with musical notation lay in its clumsiness and lack of flexibility when used for printing chords and florid music.

The year 1683 marked the beginning of sheet music. This is quite different from sheet music as we know it today, as this was created by using metal sheets to engrave the music onto. Thomas Cross was practically the inventor of sheet music and after copying Purcells Sonatas of III parts signed his name on the bottom.

By the middle of the seventeenth century the variety of music expanded to include more concerti and symphonies, requiring more instruments and printed parts. This increase in parts meant that a large quantity of separate parts required had to be supplied in multiple copies more quickly than was usually possible by the use of movable type or by the employment of handcopyists.

The beginning of the eighteenth century marked the decline of music printed from type. The reason for this decrease
was that musical composition had become more elaborate and the old movable type was found inadequate to represent it. Copperplate engraving, which was then flourishing and largely used, was, therefore, naturally adopted. This method was, however, found expensive, so that it became in a measure superseded by the method of punching the notes on pewter plates.

Another important milestone in the eighteenth century was the printing of the first music book, in the United States, from movable type. This book was Fnff schne Geistliche Lieder, published in Germantown, Pennsylvania. It was published by Christoph Saur who was also responsible for designing the type.

At the end of the eighteenth century and the turn of the nineteenth century lithography was adopted as a primary source of printing music. Lithography involves [writing] on [a] stone with greasy ink, and then [coating] the surgace with a mixture of water, acid and gum Arabic. Finally [inking] the whole, and the ink was absorbed solely by the writing. Thus an impression was left which could be taken directly from the surface of the stone.

By the nineteenth century printing using lithography was not as common. This process was being switched from printing on stones to printing on metal plates [making] printing easier and quicker. This process produced many large works in the eighteenth century including eight full scores of Rossini operas and the seven-volume Raccolta di musica sacra.
Later in the nineteenth century lithographic stones were replaced by plates made of zinc and aluminum which increased the speed of production. More advances in printing have developed due to the invention of photographic techniques and other mechanical devices. It is possible with these machines to produce elaborate scores. However, despite the potential these new machines have the once tasteful and diversified art of music printing has generally reached a level of uniformity more widespread than at any time in its history. Failing a revolution in design or technique, the printed note now seems to have lost its former capacity to rival the range of processes and founts of type which were and still are available for the printing of books.

CONSTRAINTS OF PRINTING PRESS ON MUSIC

The invention of the printing press indirectly puts constraints on the performance of music. Constraints include things such as limited music interpretation, over editing and having numerous editions of the same piece of music.

In the Renaissance, when the printing press was first put to use, composers were worried about the effect that the printing press would have on their compositions. They thought that print represented a loss of control and compared their printed works to children sent out alone into the world.

With a standardized look modern printing has, printed music detracts from the art of the original manuscript. The desire of musical scores is to create a work that is as close to the composers original idea. Editions that have manuscript sources, , [promise] a version of the text that [seems] closer to the authors original or final intentions.

Many problems occur with the editors of music. It has been found that the variants introduced by earlier editors, the errors of compilers and typesetters, and the abbreviations used in early printed books all [stand] in the way of recovering the authors authentic text. In many editions something as basic as correct notes are not consistent which creates the need to identify the errors and correct them.

The invention of the printing press had a significant effect on history from that point and after. Type designs were created by various countries where the printing press had quickly spread to many countries.

Art is connected with printing in many ways. The printing press was another way for people to express their creativity. This could be done with adding color or other hand written details.

The link between music and printing is essential to understand before one can see the impact that the invention of the printing press had on music. The differences between literature and musical notation are significant. Musical texts are performance texts and are deciphered twice.

The history of printed music dates earlier than the invention of the printing press. The early forms of printing music ranged from engraving onto copper plates to carving pieces of wood.

Printed music adds many constraints on the performance of music. The musical interpretation can suffer from reading off of various scores. Also, it is easy for editors to make mistakes, which in turn causes confusion for the performer. Related to this, with many editions it is difficult for the performer to know which edition is the most accurate.

The printing of books is not what makes Gutenbergs invention so significant in history. The important thing to note about the printing press is its ability to produce a large amount of identical copies. This principle, with the help of technology, has made it possible to produce millions of identical newspapers within a few hours. It is this principle that has made Gutenbergs invention a turning point in the history of civilization.

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PORTRAYAL OF WOMEN IN THE NOVELS AND SHORT-STORIES OF BHARATI MUKHERJEE

PORTRAYAL OF WOMEN IN THE NOVELS AND SHORT-STORIES OF BHARATI MUKHERJEE AND EDITED POEMS OF HARPRASAD SHARMA BY DR. RAM SHARMA

Taking into account the complexity of life,different histories culture and different structures of values, the woman’s question despite basic solidarity, needs to be tackled in relation to the socio-cultural situation. The novels of Bharati Mukherjee are self actualising. Quest for the definition of self and search for identity are the main features of her women who are seen caught in the flux of tradition and tradition and modernity. Neither can they completely detach themselves from their part, nor do they have any certitude in the future. Bharati Mukherjee has interceded reworked the study of feminism in her writings. Central to her vision in The Holder Of The World, Wife and jasmine are issues related to women. Feminism in her works has something of What Caroll Smith Rosen Berg (1979) argues is -the emotional segregation of women and man, which brought about, led to the development of a specifically female world(137)-. The network of female world comes to us not only in Mukherjee’s novels but also in her collections of Short Stories. She advocates many faces of feminism encompassing agitation for equal opportunity, sexual antonomy and right of self determination.

Justification

Mukherjee’s fiction convinces us that gender is a multifaceted category open to change and variation, and reinforces, what Anna Lowenhaupt Tsing had suggested-that particular forms of female marginality must be examined in relation to the conditions of women’s lives-as immigrants, minorities, wealthy, poor, black, white, sex workers, maids, or academics (quoted by Rayaprol 135). Mukherjee’s depiction of women and their different relationships portrays the dominance of patriarchal practices in traditional society, as well as the forms of liberation and empowerment which are available to women in their diasporic situation. Mukherjee’s female characters are real, modern lifelike. They are typical representatives of young woman particularly of The Third World countries who cherish the dream of emigrating to America for higher education and higher wages, and then after arrival there, aspire to settle there permanently. Their situations and the difficulties they face are also realistically portrayed. In nearly, all stories there is a fixed pattern. In the first part of each story, the focus is on narrating the situation of an immigrant who is in the process of immigration or settling down and in the second part who is in the process of immigration or settling down and in the second part the protagoinst is invariably given to making love with a partner of the opposite sex who is rooted in the American soil.

Contents

1. Chapter I Introduction 2. Chapter II Portrayal of Women IN -The Tiger’s Daughter- 3. Chapter III Portrayal of Women IN -Wife- 4. Chapter IV Portrayal of Women IN -Jasmine- 5. Chapter V Portrayal of Women IN -The Holder Of The World- 6. Chapter VI Portrayal of Women IN -Leave It To Me- 7. Chapter VII Portrayal of Women IN -Desirable Daughters- 8. Chapter VIII Portrayal of Women IN -Tree Bride- 9. Chapter IX Portrayal of Women IN -The Short Stories- 10. Conclusion 11. Bibliography (i) Primary Sources (ii) Critical Studies On Bharati Mukherjee

Chapter I

Introduction

Bharati Mukerjee is a significant woman novelist. She was born on 27th July 1940, in a Bengali Brahmin family of Calcutta. Her father’s name was Sudhir Lal Mukherjee. He was a pharmaceutical chemist. Her mother, Bina Mukherjee was a housewife. Mukherjee spent her first eight years as a member with her parents and two sisters in a joint family . She lived with her parents and two sisters in London for about three years. in 1951 the family returned to Calcutta and she joined the English -speaking Loreto, convent school, run by Irish nuns. Mukherjee and her sisters were chauffeured to the convent school quite, Characteristic of this clash of Bengalis, the family “westernized” in the sense that English education was valued.

In 1958, Mukherjee’s father lost her partnership in the factory and moved him family to Baroda. Bharati Mukherjee completed her B.A. (Honours) English at university of Calcutta in 1959. She took her M.A. degree in English from the university of Baroda in 1961.She went to the University of obtained an MFA in creative writing in 1963 and a Ph.D. in English in 1969.

In the University of Iowa Mukherjee met Clark Blaise, a Canadians fellow student at the university of Iowa. She married him in 1963. She lived in Canada from 1966 to 1980. She got Canadian citizenship and lived in Toronto and then in Montreal. She held teaching portions at MC Gill university and Concordia university. She migrated to the U.S.A. in 1980 with her family and become a U.S.A citizen in 1988. She was awarded the “Prestigious Shastri Indo Canadian Institute Grant” during the year 1976-77. She was a recipient of “Guggenhein Foundation Award” in 1978-79 and “Canadian Government Award in 1982.” She also won the first prize from “Periodical Distribution Association in 1980″ for her short story “Isolated Incidents”. Mukherjee has also been honoured with the “National Book Critics Circle Award” for her short stories collection. “The Middleman and Other Stories in 1989″. Her other works are. Her creative five novels are: “The Tiger’s Daughter (1972), Wife (1975), Jasmine (1989), The Holder of the world (1993) , Leave It to me (1997), Desirable Daughters (2002) and The tree Bride (2004) and two collections of short stories : “Darkness (1985)” and ” The Middleman and Other Stories (1988)”. Her husband, Clark Blaise, helps her in her fiction. He is an American – Canadian author. He teaches also in the English department of Columbia university.She has co-authored with her husband two non-fictional works: first is ” Days and Night in Calcutta” in (1977), and second is ” The Sorrow and the Terror”

Chapter-II

Portrayal Of Women In -The Tiger’s Daughter-

The Tiger’s Daughter reflects the confrontation between illusion and reality. Tara, the protagoinst was packed off by her father at early age of fifteen at America, because he was prompted by suspicion and pain for his country. Tara is homesick in Poughkeepsie. Little things pained her. She sensed discriminaton if her room mate did not share her mango chutney. She defended her family and her country vehemently. She prayed to kali for strength, so that she would not break down, before the Americans. It was fate that she fell in love with an American. This novel begins with a reference to fate and astrology. It seems a device adopted by the writer around which she can weave her plots. Tara’s husband David was painfully Western, she was dutifully devious in her marriage. She could not communicate the finer nuances of her family background and life in Calcutta. Her husband asked nave questions about Indian Customs and Traditions. She felt completely insecure in an alien atmosphere. -Madisson Square was unbearable and her husband was after all a foreigner.- After a gap of seven years Tara planned a trip to India, for years she had dreamed of this return. She believed that all hesitations and all shadowy fears of the time abroad would be erased quite magically if she could return home to Calcutta. With the precision of a newspaper reporter, Bharati Mukherjee leads her heroine through a series of adventures and dis-adventures to a final self-realisation and reconciliation. Tara’s homesick eyes noticed may changes in the city of Calcutta. She was outraged, and could not respond to these changes. She longed for the Bengal Of Satyajit Rao , children running through cool green spaces, aristocrats despairing in music rooms of empty places. What confronted her was a restive city which forced weak men to fanatical defiance or dishonesty.

The writer interlinks the events-like Tara’s visit to funeral pyre at the river bank, her meeting with a small beggar girl affected with leprosy, the vision of beggar children eating off the street, the superficialities in the lives of her friends, the riots and demonstrations and her claustrophobic rape by the politician Tuntunwala to bring out the trauma of Tara’s visit to India. Tara’s visit to Darjelling is also marred by ugly and violent incidents. Many of Tara’s doubts and conflicts are resolved by the strength, determination and quite dignity of her parents. AntoniaWhitehead, an American lends Tara a fresher and clearer perspective about her country. Tara realized that her earlier responses to Calcutta had also been similarly impatient, menacing and equally innocent. The visit to the ashram of Mata Kananbala Devi makes her share of love for her mother as well as the worshippers.The Indian dream is shattered but the writer leads the heroine to a final reconciliation. At the end of the novel, Tara is involved in a violent demonstration, in which Joyob Roy Chaudhary, a symbol of the old world is brutally beaten to death. Pronob the youth tries to save him, but is himself injured in the process. This was a course of history, which could not be stopped. -She felt she had made peace with the city, nothing more was demanded.-

Chapter-III

Portrayal Of Women In -Wife-

Wife is a story of Dimple Das Gupta, a product of Calcutta’s middle class that values docility and submissiveness in women. From the very beginning we feel that the Dimple is not like a normal girl, she thinks that marriage is a blessing in disguise. It will bring her freedom, fortune and happiness. At last her father Mr. DasGupta married her daughter with Amit Basu. Basu’s house is not attractive, so she does not feel easy there. She doesn’t likes Amit’s mother and sister also. Her mother-in-law dislikes her name -Dimple’ and wants to call her -Nandini’. Dimple Basu has always lived in a fantastic world, a world which is created by herself. But when she confronts the hard realities of life the feathers of her imagination are clipped. Amit was not the man Dimple has imagined for her husband. With the passing of time the excitement of marriage diminishes and she becomes pregnant, She feels a strange sensation. Pregnancy is a boon for Indian women, but Dimple is singular in that -She thought of ways to get rid of -. So she decides to terminate her pregnancy, Only Dimple who can do herself abortion, She never repents her cruel deeds. Inamdar rightly says -Dimple is a psychic study of an abnormal woman-. Dimple wants to do away with the tradition taboos of a wife and she becomes on escapist, lost in her requestered world of fantasy. The killng of a mouse to her is a symbolic suicide of herself. In New York her circumscribed self finds expressions for her frustration in a chilling effect of self assertion- the act being the cold blooded murder of her husband. The name Dimple is quite scintillating and enticing but lexico- graphically it means any slight surface depression. This depression on the surface is again symbolic of the depression within her psyche, which is borne out of her irritable responses to the things around her. Bharati Mukherjee present the world of Dimple. A world of day dreams and nightmares and her morbid psyche through a series of grotesqe images. Dimple’s morbidity is evident while she is still at her parental home in the way she allows her conscious mind to be completely dominated by the colourful romance projected in the advertisements and the stories of magzines. Including herself in sexual fantasies with Cricket Stars, Young Cabinet Ministers and Heroes from novels, Dimple sets out on a long journey of unreal meaningless and morbid existence. Dimple in wife, is symbolized the predicament of a voice without articulation and without a vision. They are visionless because they are voiceless ; they are rootless because they are shootless. Uniquely Indian are superficially westernized, she is basically human. They give vent to their feminine sensibility in their frantic desire for an authentic communication with the self as well as the society.

Chapter-IV

Portrayal Of Women In Jasmine

Jasmine can be read as a feminist novel where the protagonist rebels not only against age-old superstitions and traditions, but also effects a proper balance between tradition and modernity. The novel is a celebration of the strength of a woman, not her weakness. In a language of emotion and meticulous metaphor using images provided by the woman protagonist the novelist has articulated the many sided pathos and rebellion of contemporary Indian Woman, not only in India but also in New World. In Jasmine a woman comes to terms with her own self. As Sumita Roy points out :- -Jasmine’s search for self-recognition takes her in social and spiritual direction–.till she arrives at a time when she can view the future -greedy with wants and reekless from hope-. From the very beginning Bharati Mukherjee has delineated the Jyoti of Hasanpur (who later on becomes Jasmine, and Jase and Jane ) as a rebel against blind beliefs and superstitions. Early in the novel Jyoti tries to raise herself above such blind belief in fate which is adumbrated by the astrologer thus -fate is Fate-. While scavenging firewood Jyoti gets a star shaped wound on her forhead. That scar becomes her third eye and through an archetypal image (Shiva’s Third Eye) Mukherjee shows that already Jyoti was peering out into invisible words (Now I am a sage-) The third eye gives her a wide and true perspective on life. She learns to look back to the past not like a coward bunkering herself inside nostalgia, sheathing her heart in a bullet-proof vest. For her, even memories are a sign of disloyality. Similarly with her third eye she learns to look into the future with pain and hope and when she embarkes into her final journey in America she is -greedy’ with wants and reekless with hopes. It is as if like Shiva she was swallowed the cosmos whole. Bharati Mukherjee also shows her woman protagonist repudiating centuries – old ugly Indian tradition of checking the boys horoscope.The second archetypal image that Bharati Mukherjee uses to bring out the protagonist’s feminist trait is that of Kali, the Goddess of Destruction. But since in Hindu mythology Kali is an incarnation of Durga, the Godess of Strength (shakti), the image here is more relevant to the strength of a woman like Jasmine who has embarked on a perilous journey to a new world of fulfill her husband’s dream. After her husband’s death in order to reach USA she stows in a boat captained by half-face. But after landing in America when half-face demands his price (nothing less than the satisfaction of his lurtful passions will do) Jasmine in a truly feminist gesture decides to kill the Devil Incarnate and Bharati Mukherjee brilliantly fuses two archetypal image to enact the killing of Kali : The Godess of Destruction and strength and the broken pitcher. This new identity in reality expresses another aspect of the -feminist- in the Indian fiction in English for the true feminist, in my eyes, is the one who has achieved a proper balance between tradition and modernity. In the beginning in America Jasmine lodges with Prakash’s Professorji-Mr. Vadhera. But she feel uncomfortable in Professorji’s house which they have converted into a Punjab ghetto. She wants to get away from the claustrophobic traditional -Indianness’ and Bharati Mukherjee brings out this contrast between tradition and modernity through the contrast between Professorji wife Nirmala and the protagonist Jasmine. Nirmala only takes, Jasmine both takes and gives. That is why she can escape the Indian ghetto in flushing and adopt herself to the patterns of dominant. American culture ( modernity) but that does not mean she throws to the wind her race, her religion , her beliefs (tradition). A true feminist Jasmine, does not hold fast to nostalgia that is dead but maintains certain basic traits of Indian Culture even after imbibing American Culture. Thus even after Jasmine has become Dulf’s day Mummy, a caregiver (not a servant, mind you) in the Taylor household her traditional roots break through again and again. With infinite care Bharati Mukherjee her protagoinst’s gradual transformation but some times there is a conflict between Jasmine’s two selves, one still holding fast to traditional Indian Values of life and the other an adventure in a Capitalistic Culture. But as an apotheosis of true Feminist spirit Jasmine does not hold fast to a -dead nostalgia- and as she tells Taylor about her past, it gets exorcised. She falls hopelessly in love with Taylor but the past comes back to destroy her present when she sees Sukhi, her husband’s murderer in the park and she decides to leave Claremont For Iowa. And here in Iowa Budd Ripplemeyer falls in love with her (and she gets a new identity : Jane Ripplemeyer ) . Budd courts her because for him she is the very embodiment of Eastern mystery. -Budd courts me because I am alien, I am darkness, mystery inscrutability.- Bharati Mukherjee passes the final judgement through her mouthpiece, Jasmine, we are once won over by her scintillating prose, her cadenced rhythm and above all her powerful feminist convictions. -I am caught between the promise of America and old world dutifulness.-

Chapter-V

Portrayal Of Women In -The Holder Of The World-

-The Holder Of The World- is a feminist novel. But as far as handling of feminist point of debate is concerned a parallel can be drawn between -The Journey Of Ithaca- and -The Holder Of The World-. -The Holder Of The World- is a story of Hannah Easton a abandoned child came to India in the seventeenth century and imbided herself in its culture. Hannah Easton arrives in India from Puritan Massachusetts and -translates herself’ into the Salem Bibi, the mistress of Raja Jadav Singh. The novel also gyrates around the tale of the Emperor’s Tear, the diamond which Aurangzeb hung in his war tent and which Hannah steals. But history loses the diamond. In the mid-twenteith century Beigh Marters and her boyfriend Venn Iyer of MIT strives to create the greatest -data plasma’ in the world. They ste to unearth something useful from layers of history, life and times of the Salem Bibi and the Emperor’s Tear. Beigh Masters visit the Maritime Museum in Massachussets to lock into the dusty debris of Mughal Miniature Paintings’ goes to auction houses and several historical records and memories. The transmigration of Salem Bibi’s soul through time and space becomes an allegory of Beifg Master’s personal discovery.Flavour of -historical feminism’ is insinuated here and there through the incidents of Hannah’s life. Her mother Rebecca leaves an ineradicable imprint on young Hannah’s mind which she disappears with a Nipmuc–The ultimate unnatural crime of Puritan Life–.She (Hannah) witnessed the fall, not Adam’s fall Rebecca’s fall. Hannah carries claustrophobic memories of the event through out her life. She too later profligates the concept of a proper English lady to become the bibi of Jadhav Singh, who is fighting the Mughals. She was brought up in an orthodox setup of fitch household, gained all the conventional wisdom and housekeeping, developed an obsessive love of needle work. Hannah neither forgets nor forgives her mother’s crime of elopement. She never shares her emotional tumult with anyone. In the Puritan family circle of fitch she could never imagine to talk to her mother. Her husband Gabriel Legge is a colourful raconteur, the swaggering seafarer, he never had time or sensibility to listen to Hannah. He is employed as a factor of the East India Company. Hannah’s fate brings her to India, her marriage with Gabriel emulates her mother’s behaviour. She finds a good friend in Bhagmati, her Indian ayah, who brings to her the glimmerings of understanding of an aged civilization. She narrates fragments from -The Ramayana’. She is attracted to the events of Sita’s life because she proves her purity to her husband and to her society in a trial by fire. The God Of Fire, Agni, embraces her and expels her unscorched. An interesting parallel is that Hannah’s life was also a trial by fire , but unlike Sita she never withstands Agnipariksha for the sake of her husband. Gabriel wanted Hannah to triumph over her Puritan sensibilities and she obliged him, because she loved things of life. Legge joins a group of pirates and during one of his misadventures with Haj pilgrims he is separated from his wife. Hanna escapes with Bhagmati to Panpur under the protection of Raja Jadav Singh of Devgad. Bhagmati and Hannah become the guests of Raja. She steps into a new world of Hinduism. She and Jadav Singh wooed each other. The Nawab Haider Beg despatches his most ruthless commander , Morad farah, to cage Raja, Jadav Singh unsurp the diamond, Emperor’s tear and bring Hannah, the firangi lady. Jadav Singh with no option, bundled Hannah and Bhagmati into a palanquin and a disguised Raja into another. On their way to Nawab the Raja attacked the Mughal army. Hannah eventually kills Morad saves Jadav’s life and brings him back to Panpur. She decides to offer her life to end the war, goes to transact with the Emperor but is taken hostage by him. Whenever, Aurangzeb comes to see her, she is reminded of Ravana the demon king of Lanka in Muslim disguise. Though she fails in her mission for armistice between the Raja and the Emperor, somehow, she purloins the diamond- the Emperor’s Tear. She hands over the diamond to Bhagmati. The diamond is ultimately found by Beigh Masters in a cyberspatial finale. Bhagmati thrusts the world’s most famous diamond into her dying womb. It is in her grave that they find the holder of the world of the seventeenth century. Bharati Mukherjee sees herself as a unique human being and gives message to her fellow female. In -The Holder Of The World-, she suggests two advantages of Women Liberation. Hannah and Bhagmati in -The Holder Of The World- recurrently defy estrangement in the society they live and get the answer in rejecting cultural stereotypes they develop the life of their own outside the home. The Salem Bibi provocates Masters Beigh to unreveal the mystery which surrounded her life and the diamond. Mukherjee devotes her attention to female issues in the historical times as well as in the contemporary society. Mukherjee and Master Beigh involve deeply in the Salem Bibi in making sense from the historical evidences because conventional answers no longer satisfy. They feel social and cultural change in a recursive process and women have to play steering role.

Chapter VI

Portayal Of Women In -Leave It To Me-

The protagonist is a Eurasian Orphan, Debbie Devi who is adopted by an upstate New York family of Italian Origin. Born in India and raised as an adopted child, Devi Dee travels through America to find her bio-mom. By the time she has arrived in San Francisco and taken a band of aging ex-hippies and a psychotic Vietnam Vet, her identity crisis looms large. It leads her to track down her bio-parents in Laxmipur, Devigaon, India, and the orphanage where she raised-the Gray Sisters–Soeuss Grises–Sore Grease-in Mount Abu. She learns from Fred, her hired detective, that her mother was the Hippie follower of a sex-age guru, and her father the founder of the ashram, serial killer Romeo Hawk Haque. The offspring of this unlikely liaison, Devi Dee-presumed missing or dead is saved by nuns and shipped abroad to America, where she is raised as the adopted child of the Di Martino family. Twenty three years later having graduated from Sunny, Albany, she sets out to seek her bio-mom in off-beat California. This novel makes the predicament of the protagonist crystal-clear, Mukherjee deals with the reality of -Time-Travel-. In -Leave It To Me- Mukherjee reverts to her earlier obsession with an exile’s agony.

Chapter-VII

Portrayal Of Women In -Desirable Daughters-

-Desirable Daughters- follow the diverging paths taken by three Calcutta-born sisters as they come of age in a changing world. Tara, Padma and Parvati were born into a wealthy Brahmin family presided over by their dothing father and their traditionalist mother. Intelligent and artistic, the girls are nevertheless constrained by a society with little regard for women. Their subsequent rebellion will lead them in different directions to different continents and through different circumstances that strain yet ultimately strengthen their relationship. Bharati mukherjee has written a remarkable novel that is both the portrait of a traditional Indian Brahmin family and a contemporary American story of a woman who is in many ways broken with tradition but still remains tied to her native country. This is about three Bengali sisters who grew up in Calcutta and eventually end up in three different corners of the globe leading three different lifestyles. One lives a comfortable life in a posh residential locality in Mumbai keeping herself busy in household chores. Another of the sister ends up New Jersey among the elite class of migrant Indians. The third ends up in the West in California Leading a more pedestrian life after getting a divorce from her business tycoon husband. It’s an interesting tale about how life puts us in different circumstances we hardly imagined ourselves in and how each of us overcomes the challenges that life poses us. -Desirable Daughters- is a melting pot of styles. It’s a middlebrove women’s novel (think an Indian Hannah and her sisters) ; a postcolonial tale life with meditations on belonging and exile, and a thriller, complete with a mysterious stranger and quirky cop. Throw in a touch of Hindu style magic realism and stir. Tara Chatterjee, the afformentioned narrator, is the youngest of three sisters from the wealthy Calcutta family trapped between the old world and the new. At nineteen she was married off to Bish Chatterjee, who became a Silicon Valley Billionare. Now pushing 40, tara is a divorcee living in San Francisco with her teenage son and her boyfriend, a Buddhist earthquake-proofer whose truck advertises him as the -Zen Master of Retro Fit-. Although she left Calcutta decades ago, Tara radar is always on alert, encoding names, manners, and accents whenever she encounters strangers of Indian descent. This ethnic antenna comes in hardy when young man named Chris Dey surfaces, claiming to be the illegitimate son of her eldest sister, Padma. Tara senses there is something fishy about him and call her riblings, hoping to clear up the mystery. These searching conversations with Padma (a multicultural performance artist in New Jersey) and Parvati (who lives in Bombay and, worries incessantly about crime) provide some of the funniest, most astute scenes in the novel. Mukherjee has perfect emotional pitch, nailing the conflicted, sometimes vicious dynamics among sisters. Tara initially describes her family as close ; in reality, she and her sisters routinely whitewash their sadness. -The rules of our transcontinental relationships are instituted, never acknowledged.- Tara admits at one point, – We accept that given the international phone rates, our personal defeats are too banal to waste money on.- When she tries to pump them for information on the mysterious Chris Day, they scold her for tainting their cloistered, halcyon childhood with scandal. After some sleuthing on Tara’s part, she discovers that her father, a religious Brahmin, forbade Padma from marrying her Christian boyfriend, Ronald Dey, she also learns that the man who claims to be Chris Dey may be an importer linked to an Indian gangster syndicate who is targeting Bish Chattrejee’s tech empire. This thriller plotline isn’t entirely convicing because Mukherjee doesn’t take it seriously, mainly using Chris Dey as a device for transporting the specters of the past into the present. She traces a fuzzy line back several generation. -to the decision of Ronald’s grandfather to convert to protestantism and gain favour from the British and lose status with the Hindus.- Or may be even farther back to Tara’s own great grandfather, an educated Bengali who turned his back on colonial society and become a born-again Hindu, setting her family on the path of orthodoxy and repression. From a respected writer of fiction comes a stirring novel of three Calcutta born women, two continents, and a perilous journey from the old world to the new. Mukherjee weaves together stories of the sister’s ancestors, their childhood memories, and dramastic scenes from India’s History. Chapter-VIII

Portrayal Of Women In -Tree Bride-

The -Tree Bride- takes up from her last novel, Desirable Daughters, ended. It’s a second in a trilogy. The protagonist, Tara Chatterjee, is a savvy, cosmopolitian world-traveller very taken with her priveledged life as a Silicon Valley magnate. But when her home is firebombed just as she may be reconciling with her ex, she begins to yearn for home and tradition. A trip back to India rekindles a desire to find her family’s ancestral roots and place in the history of pre-independent India. The novel begins on this note with the most American of all searches : the desire to trace one’s ancestry. Tara is fascinated by an ancestor : her almost namesake, Tara Lata, a five year old girl who was a victim of the archaic custom of child marriage-atradition even her father, a university graduate and lawyer, willingly follows. It is 1879, and Tara Lata’s wedding party is traveling through a dark jungle to rendezvous with the bridegroom’s family, who instead of greeting them hurls curses at the bride, calling her unlucky because the boy bridegroom had been bitten fatally by a snake. To save her from a life of a degradation, widowhood, and shame, Tara Lata’s father -marries- her to the God of the forest, and she becomes the legendary Tree Bride. The young girl retreats to her father’s house and makes it a refugee for the poor, the sick, and finally the fighters for Indian Independence. She is dragged from her home in 1944 by colonial authorities, who announce her death six days later. Mukherjee does not have an aunt like Tara in the family, but she says that -three were many Tara Lata’s married to trees, so that they could have a life on earth, a place in society where they would not be considered outcasts, and a place in Heaven. The ancient Hindus believed that widows are unlucky and would descend to hell.- With ayoung woman trying to find herself and how she fit into her place in the universe, the story traces the British Colonial rule in India, its contributions and its ultimate downfall. While she is struggling with the thought of getting back with her ex-husband and being pregnant with her child, Tara tries to understand her heritage and the actions of her ancestors which may and may not have contributed to the sum total of the person she has evolved into. Every action in the universe has an equal and opposite reaction, nothing in the universe ever gets lost ; everything is connected. The -Tree Bride- is a one person narrative of British history in India. A great deal of detail has gone into recreating the British men who left their homeland to fulfill what they believed was a higher purpose of instilling order and discipline in foreign lands. Mukherjee with her insightful understanding of women nature deep psychological analysis never really succeeds in bringing the deeds British men to life. But she does shine with her evocation of the city of her birth, the Brahmin society’s snobbery and in capturing the intricacies of Tara and her namesake -The Tree Bride-.

Chapter-IX

Portrayal Of Women In -The Short Stories Of Bharati Mukherjee-

Bharati Mukherjee has written two collections of short

stories namely -Darkness (1985)- and -The Middleman and Other Stories-

(1989). Mukherjee’s Darkness consists of twelve short stories, and -The

Middleman and Other Stories- comprises eleven short stories very varied in

theme and technique. In many short stories of Bharati Mukherjee the

protogoinst are woman who are married or divorced and have an inclination

to from relationships which terminate in several misadventure. These female

characters can be called the liberated women. They pick and mix with men

so freely and satisfy their lust for sensuality and then instead of stopping

their move on to form new arrangements. The traditional view of seeing

these love-relationships terminating in marital unions or well established

love-affairs is nowhere distinctly conceived. On the contrary, their

disorderly conduct and promiscuity raise doubts about their notions and

dream of immigration and settlement in the United State. But one would

certainly be moved by the pathetic situation of kids born of unstabilized

marriages or marriages breaking up too soon making the kids grow into

freaks and emotionally unbalanced individuals. From the traditional way of

thinking of non-American societies, the new world life embraced by the

immigrants may appear to be seriously deficient in a moral system. To be

completely liberated in matters of sex may create more problems than it may

solve. The family life in America may appear to be so very unsecure and

unstable.

Bharati Mukherjee’s concern with the processes of

effecting transformations of the protagoinsts and other immigrants into

American citizens. Each one of the stories in one way or another turns on the

theme of fulfillment which is brought about almost mechanically without

first developing an appropriate emotional or sentimental matrix out of which

the desire for a matrimonial or love-relationship might genuinely result.

Panna, the protagoinst of The Wife’s Story has walked out of the traditional

Hindu Marriage, left Ahemdabad for Menhattan where she experiences

freedom and individuality. She learns a great deal from the way charity

chin’s lurid love life has -replaced inherited notions of marital duty.-

-The Middleman-, the title story is about the dangerous

career and fortunate survival of the half caste Maria narrated from the point

of an Iraqi observer participant. Mukherjee’s next story -The Tenant’ is

more successful and artistically finished than some of the earlier ones

discussed here, Maya Sanyal, a Ph. D. in Comparative Literature teaches

World Literature at the University Of Northern Iowa. For Maya, -no folly is

ever lost-. For , History is a net, the kind of safety net traveling trapeze

artists fall into, when inattentive or clumsy. Mukherjee’s Jasmine destined to

be developed into a novel a later date, It begins to be a matter of fact way.

Jasmine came to Detroit from Port Of Spain, Trinidad, by way of Canada.

Angella is the short story in Mukherjee’s Darkness , the

short story collection. Angella, the protogoinst tells us the sad story of an

immigrant from Bangladesh who can only dream of love, domesticity,

babies and all the comforts that a doctor’s wife can possibly enjoy in the

new world. Mukherjee’s second short story in this volume -The Lady From

Lucknow- is ironical in theme and technique. Beginning the story with a

surrealistic picturing of a broken heart from the point of view of a small and

possibly shocked girl of four. Mukherjee develops the theme of passionate

love into a major cultural paradex as a Muslim protogoinst matures into a

young and voluptus woman married to an engineer manager name Iqbal Iry.

-The World according to her.- Mukherjee’s next story the protogoinst Ratna

herself the offspring of an international marriage in 1936 (she had a

Czechoslovak mother and a Bengali father), is married to a liberal white

Canadian, probably a WASP. The next story entitled -The Father’ deals with a tricky situation in which the cultural and enthic encounter is not between

individuals but attitudes acquired as well as preserved ; between reason and

superstition. The Indian immigrants-the Bhowmicks are sufficiently

acclutured but not fully assimilated. The parents are horried to knowthat

their brilliant plain daughter, Babil, an Electrical Engineer wants to have a

baby by artificial insemination outside Wedlock. When confronted by the

-fantasising’ father and the shocked mother, the pregnant Babil replies ;

-Who needs a man? She hissed. The father of my baby is a bottle and

syringe. Men louse up your lives. I just want a baby.- -orbiting is a story of

great significance. When brent listens to Ro’s experiences in his home

country Afghanistan , he is for the first time exposed to Third World

Passion. Ro’s beloved Rindy comes to know for the first time that words like

Kandhar and Pamir are not Polish words but important names associated with Afghanistan.

Conclusion

Mukherjee’s female characters are real, modern lifelike. They are typical representatives of young woman particularly of The Third World countries who cherish the dream of emigrating to America for higher education and higher wages, and then after arrival there, aspire to settle there permanently. Their situations and the difficulties they face are also realistically portrayed. In nearly, all stories there is a fixed pattern. In the first part of each story, the focus is on narrating the situation of an immigrant who is in the process of immigration or settling down and in the second part the protagoinst is invariably given to making love with a partner of the opposite sex who is rooted in the American soil. There is little or no consideration that the sexual adventure of the female protagoinst with the male member of may amount to adultery or cause serious protest from the housewife. In fast, while such adulterous transactions are carried on freely and even promiscuously, the housewives take them as normal behaviour. The moral norms do not exist at all, or that sexual ptomiscuity is a socially recognized fact. The world then appears so ordained as to give, both man and woman equal dignity and equal freedom. It would then appear to be a world in which neither of them is seriously restrained or bound by obligations towards the children or to the collective family life. The stories have the form of the sonnet in the sense that while the first part develops the situation, the second part suddenly takes a decisive through expected turn culminating in the passionate, amoral adventure. By this sudden switch over to thesensual romantic theme, the story seem to develop a tendency towards the pornographic.

POEMS OF HARPRASAD SHARMA POSTED AND EDITED BY DR. RAM SHARMA IN 2007 DISPLAY OF MANKIND

Those days are gone , When love and compassion was shown, Now it is display of mankind, Intrigues and conspiracies without mind, Where such kinds of love will be found, He receives his friends in many a way, Where sun can be shown of hope but not a single ray, A figure of clay will a mundane game play, Where such a literary figure will be find, Who will show such kind of display of mankind ————————————————————————-

BUBBLE BY HARPRASAD SHARMA EDITED- DR. RAM SHARMA False attachment to worldly things, Nothing but pain and sorrow brings, Cling not to earthly things that seem, to sages like an empty dream, This body which is made of dust, Will one day like a bubble burst A frame which is subject to decay, Why grieve for that in such a way?

DR. RAM SHARMA C-26, SHRADHAPURI PHASE2, KANKERKHERA, MEERUT, U.P.

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Meditation Music

Forget emptying your thoughts. That happens on its own. The purpose of meditation is to slow down our brain waves. This is also known as brain entrainment. The benefits of meditation are some of the greatest that can be experienced. Meditation can be used to achieve deep relaxation and ease of stress. Meditation is used for inspiration, for healing, for eliminating pain, for learning, for spiritual growth…the list goes on and on. All of these are actually effects of different brainwave states. Meditation is how we move from one state to another.

Think of the gears on a car or a bike. That’s what brain waves are like. Meditation is like the assembly that is responsible for shifting the gears. If you don’t know about the effects of different brain waves and you try to meditate, you are essentially trying to shift gears without knowing what effect they will have. You may be able to get the car to go, but there’s a good chance it won’t be a fun ride. Not to mention that you might burn out the clutch in the process. Not understanding some of these things about meditation could definitely burn you out if you do it wrong. However, just like knowing how to shift gears can get you very far, very efficently, knowing how to meditate can do the same.

There are several brain waves that we operate in but the four most commonly known are BETA, ALPHA, THETA, and DELTA in that particular order. To liken it to a car again, that is first, second, third, and fourth gear. Shifting from one to the next can happen within meditation. This “shifting” is known as BRAIN ENTRAINMENT. There are many techniques that can be used to manually shift through these state, but this particular article is about using meditation music with binaural beats. Meditation music with binaural beats is one of the most effective, one of the fastest ways that you can safely shift brain waves.

Music with binaural beats is simply music that has a different beat in each ear. For example you may have a beat at 850hz(cycles per second) playing in your left ear and a beat at 870hz playing in your right ear. The brain makes up the difference. Stereo headphones must be used. The frequencies are usually below your conscious level of hearing, and are in the background of some soothing music. Throughout the song, the frequencies are gradually brought closer together, until the desired frequency is reached. Generally meditation and brainwave music with binaural beats indicates which frequencies are influenced in the music.

Keeping your eyes closed during the meditation process will make the process much easier and faster. This is because the different frequencies of light and colors etc can make it difficult to slow down the brain waves.

Not all meditation music has binaural beats in it. These will work much more slowly, with the exception of isochronic tones, but if the music relaxes you, they can be used. The most effective way to change brainwave frequencies/states with music is to first match your present state, as much as is possible. This will be the BETA state in most cases. I have meditation music free to download on the page listed in my bio. The free meditation music track is designed to bring you from 20hz to 8hz in less than 6 minutes. This will prepare you for Theta. And Theta is the game changer.

Here is a brief overview of the brain wave states.

Beta(12hz-40hz) is our everyday waking state of mind. It is what we operate in most of the day and it is not conducive to deep learning or relaxation. Just imagine driving all day in first gear. Your engine would be screaming but you’d hardly be moving. That’s what we do with our bodies.

The next state is the Alpha(8hz-12hz) brainwave frequencies. This state is very good for focus and deep imprinting onto the mind. The alpha state is associated with deep relaxation and is the beginning of access to the subconscious mind. Information can be inserted 100 times faster and more effectively in the alpha state than in the beta state. It is the state you are in when you sit down to read a book, and all of your relaxed, undivided attention is on that book.

Theta(4hz-8hz) is an incredible state to be in and is ideal for meditation. This is the state where REM(rapid eye movement) or dreaming sleep happens. In the theta and delta states, your Reticular Activating System is inactive. In both Theta and Delta states, infomation can get inserted 1,000 times faster than in the beta state. Potential behavioral changes happen in theta. Influence on the subconscious mind is unrestricted. Changes in genetic patterns can be influenced in the theta state, as well as physical healing. High access to field of consciousness(quantum field) is able to be attained.

The Delta(0.1hz-4hz) is a very deep state, and is usually only reached when in a deep dreamless sleep. It embodies everything in the theta state and more. Extremely high access to the quantum field is in the delta brain waves. HGH(human growth hormone) is released at lower delta frequencies. Pain is eliminated. An extreme sense of oneness is reached.

For many, music is a part of life. Using music like meditation music, is a completely different experience. This is music that changes things.

* Dennis Andrew *
NNOS Studios Brainwave and Meditation Music

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How to free download Vevo music video from YouTube and convert Vevo music video to Mp3

When we want to find some high quality songs for party or just relax ourselves, we would like to visit Vevo. Vevo is a good website to enjoy all kinds of wonderful music videos, search for latest official music videos as well as original premiere performances by super starts. But as we all know this website doesn’t offer video free download service. So if you want to save VEVO music videos for playback offline or permanent preservation, a good YouTube video downloader can well serve you. With this free YouTube downloader, you can even convert Vevo music video to MP3 so that you can listen to your favorite Vevo music anytime and anywhere even when you have no access to internet.

Among all YouTube downloader, BlazeVideo Free YouTube Downloader stands out for its smart capability in downloading YouTube video without any quality loss. Moreover, it is not just a single YouTube video downloader; it is also a reliable video converter. You could convert music video into MP3 for playback on your iPod or MP3 player. Furthermore, as a YouTube Downloader, it is completely free; you could take it home just by one click on the Download Now. Now let’s have a quick look at a step-by-step guide below.

How to download and convert Vevo music video to Mp3

In the case when you download YouTube music videos just for getting MP3 audios, this utility can well meet your need in helping converting already-downloaded YouTube Vevo music videos into mp3 audio with keeping the original audio quality for better enjoyment on your portable MP3 player like iPod on-the-go.To user’s surprise, this special feature is also for free, you do not need to make any payment, but just enjoy the decent service it offers.

1: Navigate to play Vevo music video you like

Enter youtube.com on any of the following browsers: IE, Firefox and Chrome. Enter youtube.com on any of the following browsers: IE, Firefox and Chrome. Find the Vevo music video you want to download and then click it to play.

2: Free Download Vevo music video

While enjoying watching, do not forget to download it as sometimes these music sounds so dulcet that we would forget our plan. Open the free Downloader, paste the URL of the music video into the URL box on the app, and select an output file path.

3: Convert Vevo music video to Mp3

Then tick the box -Convert Video to-. At this time, you’ll find the drop-down list of output formats in the box -Convert Video to- at the lower position of the main interface becomes available. Simply clicks on the drop-down list then selects the Mp3 output format at the bottom. Then click Start to convert the Vevo music video into Mp3.

9843b08fa84d4b4f9a47215bf6216db6

Finding Royalty Free Music For Videos Online

Looking for free music for videos can be tricky. Any music used in movies should be paid for, licensed, or be royalty free. Most film makers and people who create videos would like to use a certain specific song. The problem is that musicians work hard for their music and should get paid for it. When a song is used without permission, the artists do not get paid. Record companies try to hinder this by taking down videos and countering with law suits. Legal fees can be sky high. So it is better to use free music.

To use copyrighted music, fees need to be paid and a creative license given. The rates are usually affordable and reasonable. However, many people still think that usage rates are too high. Rates are usually given when asked, though sometimes requests are denied. Check the legal statements on the website.

A few seconds of songs can be used without paying for a license or royalties. About ten seconds of a song can be used for free depending on the song. Ten seconds is rarely enough of the song to make use of. This is why there are so many parody songs used. A parody is a song that is similar or uses similar sounds of a well known song.

Sound effects can be found free online. Many of the sounds that are in movies are classic. Everyone will recognize the common sounds. They can be found online. They are good because they are mixed and ready to go. They can simply be plugged into the video. They are free copyright licensed so that anyone can use them. This goes for some songs too. Many classical songs can be used because they are beyond their copyright date or it has expired.

To use a song or piece of music, first check to see if it has a creative common license. If it has one that means it does not have to be paid for. Several myths that surround copyright free music are that it sounds like elevator music and is boring. This is not true. There are many full and good songs that are open to everyone to use and enjoy. Anybody can search for rock and roll songs or country music for free music for videos.

Quality music samples are available to listen to online. Find the perfect song for the video. A specific moment can be heightened by the right piece of music. Find free music for videos online and given the video life and a soundtrack that people can identify with. The emotional level of the video is increased by music. In the film business, it is referred to as the score.

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Definition of Student Affairs

Definition of Student Affairs:

Aditi M Sengupta, Eastern Michigan University

Introduction: Student affairs Professionals are responsible for academic advising and support services delivery at colleges and universities in the United States and abroad. The division is an integral part of higher education system that seeks to serve the needs of the student. The Staff is responsible for program development and research techniques that benefit the student as a whole. They are also responsible for incorporating professional values through campus activities, counseling and resources (McClellan, G.S. & Stringer, J. 2009). Good practices in student affairs includes: 1.Engaging students in active learning. 2.Helping develop students’ coherent values and ethical standards. 3.Setting and communicating high expectations for student learning. 4.Using systematic enquiry to improve student and institutional performance. 5.Using resources effectively to achieve institutional missions and goals. 6.Forging educational partnerships that advance student learning. 7.Building supportive and inclusive communities.

Purpose of Student Affairs : The primary purpose of the student affairs program is to complement and enhance the college’s central educational mission. The student affairs philosophy is based on self governance i.e. students assume responsibility for themselves and their actions. A concurrent goal is to develop an effective support community within each residence hall that reflects and addresses the broad range of student experiences, life within a rigorous academic environment and concerns for the future. Professional staffs of student affairs fulfill an important role in helping students in making transitions and empowering them to make decisions. The structure of self governance includes the student affairs, student government, the committee on student life, the housing committee, the judicial system and the hall councils. A true teaching system is a practiced teaching philosophy by itself (McClellan, G.S. & Stringer, J. 2009). The questions that can be asked while defining Student Affairs: When asking about the Philosophy of education, the questions that commonly come to mind are: What do you believe about teaching? What do you believe about learning? How does that play out in classroom? How does student identity and background make a difference in how you teach? What do you still struggle with in terms of teaching and student learning? These are often the questions that come up to mind while teaching the philosophy of higher education based on idealism, realism, neo-theism, pragmatism and existentialism (Amey, M. J., Reesor, L. M. 2002).

Philosophy of Student Affairs: The search for student affairs philosophy goes on. The importance of maintaining a philosophical heritage in student affairs and higher education is for the formulation of policy and programming. An autonomous philosophy of education has four subdivisions: analytical, clarifying the understanding of educational concepts and terms, metaphysical, stating the reality that lies behind the facts of education, ethical or normative justifying statements of recommendation in education and epistemological providing a theory of knowledge for education. The breadth and depth of Higher education Institutions in United States are unique. Higher Education in United States is reflected according to the dynamic changes that happened in the American society over time including the abolishment of slavery, the emancipation of women, the civil rights movement, overseas conflicts and wars and other factors. The main stay of Higher education philosophy has been adherence to the fundamental principle originally founded to support the academic mission of the Institution accepting the diversity based on the commitment and development of the student as an individual person(MacKinnon, F.J.D., & Associates 2004). Perspectives on Student Affairs: The first publication of -The Student Personnel Point of View- of 1939 published its fiftieth anniversary in 1989 focused on assumptions and beliefs to shape the works of Student affairs. In the present state of Higher Education these beliefs and assumptions are the foundations of the philosophy that guides the work of Higher Education. In addition to the mission and diversity of the Institution concerned, the new additions included the environment, the communities, common good and rights of the individual, set limits on behavior, intelligent risk taking and encouragement of independent thoughts and teaching. Hence the new philosophy is a guide to the individual student and the Institution (Amey, M. J., Reesor, L. M. 2002). Values and Ethics of Student Affairs: Rentz’s book on the critical issues of Student Affairs has mentioned the set of principles that embodies the ideals of student affairs profession. The main theme of the values as mentioned in Rentz is -the mission of student affairs flows from the mission of the Institution.-, based on the civil and the legal discourse of the Institution, communication and diverse assumptions in the learning community. The underlying concepts that support the profession focus on the administrative and management role of the Student Affairs Professional(Amey, M. J., Reesor, L. M. 2002). The ethical dimensions of Student Affairs are the cornerstone of the Profession. The five simple but powerful ethical principles as stated in Rentz’s : The Foundation of student Affairs, include: respecting the autonomy of the Individual and the Institution, doing no harm, helping others, being just and being trustworthy. These are the stronger foundations of the ethical principles that are applicable to individual students, student groups and Institutions. The main skills of the student Affairs Administrator is the balance of the individual rights of students and does common good to the educational enterprise (Amey, M. J., Reesor, L. M. 2002).

Theoretical Foundations of Student Affairs: The theoretical groundwork for student affairs assist the student affairs practitioners from a wide variety of disciplines, include psychology, sociology and education( Amey, M. J., Reesor, L. M. 2002).The student development theories can be generally classified into five categories:Psychosocial (Chickering’s vectors), Cognitive-structural (Perry’s cognitive model), Typological, Person-environment interaction models, and the Student development process models , Organizational theories. Psychosocial theories include theories of life-long issues that tend to occur in sequence and are correlated to chronological age, concentrating on individuals’ progress through various life stages by accomplishing certain deeds. The cognitive structural theories address how student perceives, organizes and reasons about their experiences. Person environment theories address interactions between conceptualizations of the college student and college environment, looking at behavior as a social function of the person and the environment. Humanistic existential theories concentrate on certain philosophical concepts about human nature about freedom, responsibility, self-awareness, and self actualization so that education and personal growth is facilitated. The organizational models are more focused on individual growth and development as compared to organizations of the higher education The model that has been cited in Rentz’s book about organizational models are the rational model, bureaucratic model, collegial model and the political model(Amey, M. J., Reesor, L. M. 2002).

Student Affairs Administration Framework: Successful operation of an educational Institution requires competent administrators. Student affairs administrators direct and coordinate the student services. Vice president of Student affairs or student life, Dean of Students and Director of Student Services direct and coordinate admissions, foreign student services, health and counseling services, career services, financial aid, and housing and residential life, as well as social, recreational, and related programs. The framework of Student affairs administration includes academic advising, career services, counseling, discipline and judicial affairs, multicultural affairs, orientation, residence halls, student activities, student financial aid and student health. All the education administrators hold leadership positions with significant responsibility (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2008-09).

Financial challenges in Student Affairs: Distribution of limited financial resources is an important challenge in all organizations. In student affairs managing the Institution’s budget often involve program performance evaluation, policy analysis, operational and financial plans, funding initiatives, and conformance with established procedures, regulations and organizational objectives. According to Budget of the US government -$95 billion in loans and grants are provided to help 10.9 million students who pay for college- (Budget of the US Government, 2009) which has brought a ray of hope to the Student affairs financial aid services of Institutions of Higher Education. In recent years as limited funding has led to downsizing and restructuring of the different aspects of Institutional budget, the role of student Affairs supporting the Financial resources are seeing their role broadened(Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2008-09).There is a always a provision of the financial challenges in the student affairs profession to expand.

My goal in life concerning a career in Student Affairs: As an initial commitment to the career of a Student Affairs profession, I want to encourage, support and prepare students to assume leadership positions in higher education to achieve greater talents in their future ambitions. The points of view which I would like to see in myself as a student affairs administrator are expertise in leadership skills, public speaking, establishing goals, making contacts, fundraising, intent, strategy and planning as well as a grass root activist as an educator to encourage undergraduate and graduate students in their advocacy and advancement of higher education principles ( Jennifer Byler Institute, 2010).

Conclusion: Student Affairs Profession is a challenge of professionalism and scholarly practice to show that simple activity and hard work are not enough. There is a continuous reflection, commitment, learning, growth that is acceptable to the students and Institutions. This requires an active participation in a professional community and continual learning and development to provide excellent service to students (Carpenter & Stimpson, 2007).

References: 1.Archibald, R. B., & Feldman, D. H. (2008). Explaining increases in higher education costs. The Journal of Higher Education, 79 (3), 268-295. 2.Ardaiolo, F. P., Bender, B. E., & Roberts, G. (2005). Campus services: What do students expect? In T. E.Miller, B. E. Bender, & J. H. Schuh (Eds.), Promoting reasonable expectations:Aligning student and institutional views of the college experience (pp. 84-101). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 3.Carpenter, S.& Stimpson, M.T.(2007).Professionalism, Scholarly practice and Professional Development in Student Affairs. NASPA Journal, 44(2). Retrieved on January 8th, 2009 from: http://publications.naspa.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1795&context=naspajournal 4.Evans, N. J., Forney, D. S., & Guido-DiBrito, F. (1998). Student development in college. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers 5.Hirt, J. B., Amelink, C. T., & Schneiter, S. (2004). The nature of student affairs work in the liberal arts college. NASPA Journal, 42(1), 94-110. 6.MacKinnon, F.J.D., & Associates (2004). Rentz’s Student affairs practice in higher education (3rd ed.)(pp1-27) Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publishers. 7.McClellan, G.S. & Stringer, J. (2009) The Handbook of Student Affairs Administration (3rd ed.). (pp 1-250).San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 8.Occupational Outlook Handbook (2008-2009).125 years Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved on December 3, 2009 from: http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos007.htm http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos003.htm 9.Pope, R. L., Reynolds, A. L., & Cheatham, M. E. (1997). American College Personnel Association strategic initiative on multiculturism. Journal of College Student Development, 38, 62-67. 10.Rogers, J. L. (2003). Leadership. In S. R. Komives, D. B. Woodard, Jr., and Associates. Student services: A handbook for the profession (4th ed.) (pp. 447-465). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 11.Taub, D. J, & McEwen, M. K. (2006). Decision to enter the profession of student affairs. Journal of College Student Development, 47, 206-216. 12.Tull, A. (2006). Synergistic supervision, job satisfaction, and intention to turnover of new professionals in student affairs. Journal of College Student Development, 47, 465-480. 13.Waple, J. N. (2006). Assessment of skills and competencies necessary for entry-level student affairs work. NASPA Journal, 43(1), 1-18.

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Wedding Bookmarks Inspired By Music

Music inspired bookmarks aren’t just for musicians. If you just love music, wedding favor bookmarks are an excellent yet inexpensive choice for from-the-heart wedding favors that show your love for music as much as your love for your new spouse and your family and friends.

Colorful wedding bookmarks with designs of musical notes also depict the peace and harmony that the two of you share with each other; that your two hearts beat as one in perfect harmony.

And what better way to share your love and happiness with your closest friends and family than by giving them a thank you gift that will be a keepsake and reminder of the love they shared with you on your wedding day. Personalized bookmark favors will help you share your joy and gratitude in an affordable yet elegant way.

So if you are a musician or just love music, or you and your new spouse just “make beautiful music together,” there are a variety of ways in which you can incorporate music inspired bookmarks into your wedding theme. And wedding favor bookmarks blend in smoothly with any musical inspired wedding theme.

In fact, this is a fun and thoughtful way to add harmony to your wedding theme. After all, music a common thread in most traditional wedding ceremonies, from the moment the bride walks in through the church door to the time when the newlyweds bid farewell to go on their honeymoon.

Wedding favor bookmarks, with music as their inspiration, can be wonderful mementos of the music in your wedding. Whenever you or your guests see these inspirational keepsake bookmarks, even years later, you will be reminded of the bridal procession, the First Dance and a variety of songs heard during the wedding ceremony and reception.

Music inspired bookmarks can be designed in a wide variety of styles to blend in with your wedding theme. You can design bookmarks with musical notes and symbols, a sampling of musical instruments or really anything that expresses the musician or music lover in you and your future spouse.

You can also design bookmarks that coordinate with the rest of the wedding stationery like the invitations and programs or other favors that make up your particular theme. For example, if your wedding favors consist of personalized CDs with some of your favorite songs, complement that favor with a specially designed bookmark with the lyrics of your wedding song or a special poem or phrase printed on it. Guaranteed it will be one of the most memorable and yet most practical favors that your guests will remember long after your wedding.

And since music inspired bookmarks are such an elegant and coordinated printable piece, you can even accent your table centerpieces or place setting decorations with them. Some other ideas to coordinate your love of music in with personalized wedding bookmarks are to give them as save-the-dates announcements before your wedding invitations, going-away favors, and even thank-you notes to your guests and wedding party attendants.

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